Tone Abnormalities

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  1. Rigidity
    Stiff unmovable muscles resist all stretch regardless of velocity or direction
  2. Spasticity
    • Hypertonic muscle response where quick stretches elicit greater response
    • velocity dependent
  3. Flaccidity
    lack of tone or absence of resistance
  4. action potential
    momentary change in electrical potential between inside of a nerve cell and outside in response to a stimulus and transmits along axon
  5. motor unit
    muscle fibers innervated by all branches of a single alpha motor neuron
  6. syanpse
    • cleft
    • between nerve endings and its target
  7. hypotonicity exmaples
    • down syndrome
    • poliomyelitis
  8. quantitive measures
    • dynamo- or myo- meter
    • isotonetic testing systems
    • EMG
    • pendulum test
  9. myofilaments are what type of elements
    contractile
  10. cellular elements to muscular contributions
    • neural stim of Ca release
    • formation of actin and myosin cross bridges
    • ATP energy use
  11. alpha motor neuron is the ____ common pathway that directly stims muscle contraction
    final
  12. sources of neural stim
    • peripherial
    • spinal
    • supraspinal
  13. peripherial inputs
    • muscle spindle
    • golgi tendon organs
    • cutaneous receptors
  14. supraspinal inputs
    • sensorimotor cortical
    • cerebellum
    • basal ganglia
    • limbic
    • other descending inputs
  15. alpha motor neuron regrowth is usually ____ and can only occur at a _____ distance
    • slow
    • limited
  16. ES, hydrotherapy, and quick ___ have been used for rehab of alpha motor neuron damage
    ice
  17. insufficient excitation of alpha motor neuron can be caused by prolonged
    • immob
    • CVA
    • TBI
    • MS
  18. high muscle tone etio
    abnormally high excitatory input to an intact alpha motor neuron
  19. associated effects of high tone
    • spasms
    • contractures
    • skin ulcers secondary to abnormal postures
    • dressing, T/F, hygiene difficulty
  20. high muscle ton aggravated by
    • pain
    • cold
    • stress
  21. SCI high muscle tone management techniques
    • selective ROM exercise
    • prolonged stretch
    • positioning
    • orthotics
    • medication
    • surgery
  22. cerebral lesion high tone management for CVA, Parkinson's, and MS
    • stretch
    • icing
    • inhibitory pressure
    • casting
    • continuous passive motion
    • biofeedback
    • task training
  23. spasticity follows a _______ course
    predicatable
  24. spasticity is a ______ response
    adaptive
  25. rigidity is a consequence of CNS patho such as
    • CVA
    • TBI
    • MS
    • parkinsons
  26. basal ganglia disease AKA..
    • parkinsons
    • resting tumor that fluctuates

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Author:
amills1
ID:
259178
Filename:
Tone Abnormalities
Updated:
2014-01-30 02:47:32
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Tone Abnormalities
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Tone Abnormalities
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