chapter one notes

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chapter one notes
2014-01-30 02:27:46
evolutionary psych

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  1. understanding the human mind/brain mechanisms in evolutionary perspective is the goal of the new scientific discipline.
    evolutionary psych
  2. -studying why the mind is the way it is
    -how is the human mind designed
    -what are the functions of the component parts and their organized structure 
    -how does input from the current environment interact with the design of the human mind to produce observable behavior
    evolutionary psychology
  3. Darwin said that organisms exist in numbers far ___ than can survive and reproduce. The struggle for existence favors some variations over others, when this process is repeated generation over generation we get?!
  4. -variation

    all are essential to
    natural selection
  5. are all variations inherited?
    no, fucker
  6. organisms with some heritable variants leave more offspring because fitness attributes help with the tasks of survival. vat is dees
  7. brought about by the possession of heritable variants that increase or decrease and individuals chances of survival and reproducing, is the bottom line of evolution by natural selection. to pass inherited qualities to future generations by reproductions
    differential reproductive success
  8. competition between members of one sex
    intrasexual competition
  9. Preferential mate choice. If members of one sex have some consensus about the qualities that are desired in members of the opposite sex, then individuals of the opposite sex who possess those qualities will be preferentially chosen as mates
    intersexual selection
  10. other causes of evolutionary change, even though natural selection is the primary cause of evolutionary change
    • -genetic drift
    • -founder effect
    • -genetic bottlenecks
  11. random changes in the genetic makeup of a population
    genetic drift
  12. occurs when a small portion of a population establishes a new colony and the founders of the new colony are not entirely genetically representative of that original population
    founder effect
  13. happen when a population shrinks, perhaps owing to a random catastrophe such as an earthquake
    genetic bottlenecks
  14. the smallest discrete unit that is inherited by offspring intact, without being broken up or blended
  15. the entire collection of genes within an individual
  16. ethologists are interested in four key issues
    • 1) the immediate influences on behavior
    • 2)the developmental influences on behavior
    • 3)the function of the behavior, or the adaptive purpose
    • 4)the evolutionary phylogenetic origins of behavior
  17. stereotypic behavioral sequences an animal follows after being triggered by a well-defined stimulus
    fixed action patterns
  18. who made up inclusive fitness theory
    William D. Hamilton
  19. natural selection favors characteristics that cause an organism's genes to be passed on, regardless of whether the organism produces offspring directly
    inclusive fitness
  20. technically, inclusive fitness is not a property of __ _____ or an organism but rather a property of its ___ or _____
    an organism; actions or effects
  21. inclusive fitness can be viewed as the sum of an individual's own reproductive success (classical fitness) plus the effects the individual's actions have on the ____ ____ on his or her ____ _____
    reproductive success; genetic relatives
  22. the fundamental unit of inheritance, the unit that is passed on intact in the process of reproduction
  23. who challenged the prevailing endorsement of group selection, the notion that adaptations evolved for the benefit of the group through the differential survival and reproduction of groups, as opposed to the benefit for the gene arising through the differential reproduction of genes
    George C. Williams
  24. For kin altruism to evolve, the benefit to one's relatives in fitness currencies must be _____ than the costs to the self
  25. defined as evolved solutions to specific problems that contribute either directly or indirectly to successful reproduction
  26. in order to determine if something is an adaptation we have 3 criteria
    • -reliability
    • -efficiency
    • -economy
  27. ____ is invoked not merely to explain the usefulness of a biological mechanism, but to explain improbable usefulness
  28. misunderstanding numba wan about evolutionary theory: 
    -the doctrine that argues that behavior is controlled exclusively by genes, with little or no role for environmental influence
    genetic determinism
  29. misunderstanding numba two about evolutionary theory:
    -evolutionary theory implies that human behavior is _____ to change
  30. human behavior cannot without two ingredients
    • 1)evolved adaptations
    • 2)environmental input that triggers the development and activation of these adaptations
  31. misunderstanding numba tree about evolutionary theory:
    -the current collection of adaptive mechanisms that make up humans is _____ _____
    optimally designed
  32. because evolutionary changes occurs slowly, requiring thousands of generations of recurrent selection pressure, existing humans are necessarily designed for the previous environments of which they are a product
    evolutionary time lagz (one kick back of "optimal design")
  33. another knock to optimal design is _____ of _____
    cost of adaptations
  34. being ____ blooded gives mammals the advantage of being able to run metabolic processes at a constant temperature
    warm blooded. also mammals feed their young through their tits
  35. one of the most critical developments of the primate line that led to modern humans occurred roughly 4.4 million years ago
    bipedal motion
  36. affords the ability to cover long distances in an energetically efficient manner, enabled a greater visual angle for the detection of predators and prey, decreased the surface area of the body that was pelted by harmful sun rays, and freed up the hands
    bipedal motion
  37. -life preservative instincts
    -sexual instincts
    two main things of freuds bullshit
  38. the faculty of acting in such a way as to produce certain ends, without foresight of the ends, and without previous education in the performance
  39. the key point about ___ is that they evolved through natural selection and were adaptations to solve specific _____ problems
    instincts; adaptation
  40. type of learning in which two previously unconnected events come to be associated. stim --> response
    classical conditioning
  41. reinforcing ones behavior are the critical causes of subsequent behavior
    radical behaviorism/operant conditioning