Chapter 2 Micro

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Chapter 2 Micro
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  1. what is a distinct chemical substance that results from the combination of two or more atoms
    molecule
  2. what contains two or more different elements and are more appropriately termed
    compound
  3. when two or more atoms share, donate, or accept electrons to form molecules and compounds
    chemical bonds
  4. what are the three types of chemical bonds
    ionic, covalent, hydrogen
  5. what bond has electrons are share amoung atoms
    covalent
  6. covalent bond with an unequal sharing, has positive and negative poles
    polar
  7. covalent bond with an equal sharing, neutral electrical charge
    nonpolar
  8. what is determined by the number of electrons that an atoms has to lose or share with other atoms during bond formation
    valance
  9. means two atoms, in their pure elemental state they exist in pairs, rather than a single atom
    diatomic
  10. what bond has electrons that are transferred to one atom forming positively charged cations and negatively charged anions
    ionic bonds
  11. when salt is added to water Na and Cl separate, what is this process called
    dissociation
  12. what are charged particles
    ions
  13. what occurs when ionic bond is broken and the atoms dissociate into unattached ions
    ionization
  14. substances such as salts, acids, and bases that release ions when dissolved in water are... because their charges enable them to conduct an electrical current
    electrolytes
  15. what bonds are weak between hydrogen and other atoms
    hydrogen bond
  16. weak molecular interactions similar to hydrogen bonds that play major roles in the shape and function of biological molecules
    van der Waals forces
  17. the phenomenon in which electrons are transferred from one atom or molecule to another
    oxidation reduction
  18. any reaction that causes an atom to lose electrons
    oxidation
  19. is the result of a different atom gaining these same electrons
    reduction
  20. molecules starting a reaction
    reactants
  21. substances left by a reaction
    products
  22. an atom can donate electrons and thereby reduce another atom
    reducing agent
  23. an atom that can receive extra electrons and thereby oxidize another molecule
    oxidizing agent
  24. the reactants bond together in a manner that produces an entirely new molecule
    synthesis reactions
  25. the bonds on a single reactant molecule are broken to release two or more products
    decomposition reaction
  26. the reactants trade portions between each other and release products that are combinations of the two
    exchange reaction
  27. a mixture of one or more substances containing the solute and solvent
    solution
  28. ususally a solid and can be dissolved
    solute
  29. usually a liquid (water) does the dissolving
    solvent
  30. molecules that attract water to their surface and dissolve in water
    hydrophilic
  31. molecules that repel water
    hydrophobic
  32. molecules that have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties
    amphipathic
  33. what of a solution expresses the amount of solute dissolved in a certain amount of solvent
    concentration
  34. ranges from 0-14, expresses the concentraiton of H+ ions
    pH scale
  35. when one of its components releases excess hydrogen ions
    acidic
  36. when a component releases excess hydroxide ions
    basic
  37. reactions which give rise to water and other neutral by-products
    neutralization
  38. chemical that does not contain carbon or hydrogen
    inorganic chemicals
  39. chemical that does contain the basic framework of carbon bonded to hydrogen
    organic chemicals
  40. the molecular skeleton for living things is that it is free to bind with a variety of special molecular groups or accessory molecules
    functional groups
  41. what are organic compounds produced by living things
    biochemicals
  42. what are large compounds assembled from smaller subunits
    macromolecules
  43. what is a repeating subunit
    monomer
  44. what is a chain of monomers
    polymer
  45. what are the four biological macromolecules
    carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
  46. what are made up of sugars and polysaccharides the general formula is (CH2O)n
    carbohydrates
  47. have a six ring aldehyde and a five ring ketone
    carbohydrates
  48. what is a simple carbohydrate
    saccharide
  49. what are 3-7 carbons linked together
    monosaccharide
  50. what are two monosaccharides
    disaccharide
  51. what are five or more monosaccharides
    polysaccharide
  52. what is the loss of water in a polymerization reaction
    dehydration synthesis
  53. the combination of glucose and glucose equals
    maltose-beer
  54. the combination of glucose and fructose equals
    sucrose-tabel sugar
  55. the combination of glucose and galactose equals
    lactose- milk sugar
  56. what are the functions that include cell structure, adhesion, and metabolism
    carbohydrates
  57. disaccarides and polysaccarides are linked in which carbons on adjacent sugar units are bonded to the same oxygen atom like links on a chain
    glycosidic bonds
  58. this is from glucose crystilization helps form structure to adhesion together, strong and prevalent in nature
    cellulose
  59. this has an amorphous structure, is site for energy storage and metabolism
    startch
  60. what are long and complex, hydrophobic C-H chains, the general formula (CH2)n
    lipids
  61. what are the three kinds of lipids
    triglycerides, phospholipids in membranes, and steroids
  62. what lipid has the function of energy storage
    triglycerides
  63. what lipid has the function of major cell membrane component
    phospholipid
  64. what lipid has the function of cell membrane component
    steriods
  65. what are commonly known examples of lipids
    fats, oils, and waxes
  66. what are three fatty acids bound to glycerol
    triglyceride
  67. when a triglyceride has all single bonds it is
    saturated
  68. when a triglyceride has one or more double bonds
    unsaturated
  69. what serves as a major structural component of cell membrane
    phospholipids
  70. what is made up of glycerol with two fatty acids and a phosphate group
    phospholipids
  71. has an electrical charge (negative) and is hydrophilic
    head of phospholipid
  72. has no electrical charge, and is hydrophobic
    tails of phospholipid
  73. phospholipid are considered to be this molecule that likes and dislikes water
    amphipathic molecule
  74. what is inserted into the phospholipid bilayer and makes the membrane more durable, rigid, and tough
    cholesterol
  75. what are complex ringed compounds commonly found in cell membranes and animal hormones
    steriods
  76. a covalent bond that forms between the amino group on one amino acid and the carboxyl group on another amino acid
    peptide bond
  77. contains an unspecified number of amino acids but usually has more than 20 and is often a smaller sub-unit of a protein
    polypeptide
  78. what serve as the catalysts for all chemical reactions in cells
    enzymes
  79. what are complex glycoproteins with specific regions of attachment for bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms
    antibodies
  80. what are predominant molecules in cells
    proteins
  81. what includes the functions of support, enzymes, transport, defense, and movement
    proteins
  82. what is usually a molecule composed of a short chain of amino acids
    peptide
  83. what are monomers that make up a protein polymer
    amino acids
  84. what structure of a protein is the fundamental chain of amino acids just described, but proteins vary extensively in the exact order, type, and number of amino acids
    primary
  85. what structure spontaneously arranges itself into a higher level of complexity, causing chain to coil in regular patterns helix or pleated sheets
    secondary
  86. what structure arises through additional interchain forces and bonds between various parts of the helix and pleated sheets
    tertiary
  87. what structure has two or more polypeptides interact to form a large multiunit protein
    quaternary
  88. are composed of DNA and RNA
    nucleic acids
  89. each are composed of three smaller units; monomer
    nucleotide
  90. what contains A,T,C,G nitrogen bases, has a double helix, and fucntion is to store hereditary material
    DNA
  91. what contains A,U,C,G nitrogen bases and function is to organize protein synthesis
    RNA
  92. what is formed by two very long polynucleotide strands linked along their length by hydrogen bonds
    Double helix of DNA
  93. what is the energy molecule of cells
    ATP
  94. what is made up of nucleotides, adenine, ribose, and three phosphates and the function is to transfer and store energy
    ATP

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