Biopsychology

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Author:
avarricc
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259189
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Biopsychology
Updated:
2014-01-30 22:30:56
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Chapter Three
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Anatomy of the Nervous System
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  1. What is the Central Nervous System (CNS) designed to do ?
    • Bring in information from the senses and the internal organs
    • Assess, Process, Interpret, Relay information
    • Output Behavior
  2. What are two systems of the Nervous System & what do they do ?
    • Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • brain, spine
    • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 
    • Located out side of brain, and spine, and bring information into the CNS and carry signals out of the CNS
  3. What are two categories of the PNS & what are their function ?
    • Somatic Nervous System - interacting with external world
    • Autonomic Nervous System - Interacting with internal organs
  4. Within the Somatic Nervous System what do the Afferent & Efferent nerves do ?
    • Afferent - sensory signals to CNS
    • Efferent - motor signals from the CNS to skeletal muscles
  5. Within the Autonomic Nervous System what do the Afferent & 2 Efferent nerves do ?
    • Afferent - sensory from internal organs to CNS
    • Efferent - Sympathetic (promotes fight/flight) & Parasympathetic (promotes rest/relaxation)
  6. How are the distances of the synapse different with the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nerves ?
    • Sympathetic is CLOSE to spinal cord
    • Parasympathetic is FAR from spinal cord
  7. Where in the spine is the Sympathetic nerves & Parasympathetic nerves connected to ?
    • Symapthetic - Throacic & Lumbar
    • Parasympathetic - Cranial & Sacral
  8. What are the names and functions of the 12 Cranial Nerves ? (Oh, Oh, Oh, To Touch, And Feel Good Velvet, Ah Heaven)
    • 1. Olfactory nerve - Smell
    • 2. Optic - Vision
    • 3. Oculomotor - Eye movements, control pupils, lens and tears
    • 4. Trochlear - Eye movements
    • 5. Trigeminal - Facial sensations, chewing
    • 6. Abducens - Eye movements
    • 7. Facial - Facial movements, salivary glands, taste
    • 8. Vestibulo-cochlear - Acoustic branch and vestibular branch (balance, sound)
    • 9. Glossopharyngeal - Throat muscles, salivary glands, taste
    • 10. Vagus - heart, stomach, rest of abdominal
    • 11. Spinal Accessory - Head, neck muscles
    • 12. Hypoglossal - Tongue muscles
  9. What protects the brain from Physical Damage ?
    • Skull
    • Meninges
    • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  10. What protects the brain from Chemical Damage ?
    Blood-brain-barrier (BBB)
  11. What are the 3 Meninges and what do they protect ?
    • Dura Mater - tough outer membrane (skull)
    • Arachnoid Membrane - weblike and protects blood vessels and supply
    • Pia Mater - protects CNS surface
  12. What is Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) & where is it found ?
    • Fluid that serves as a cushion
    • Subarachnoid Space (between arachnoid membrane and pia mater)
    • Ventricles (series of hollow interconnected chambers filled with CSF
  13. What are the 4 ventricles that CSF fills & waht is Hydrocephalus refer to ?
    • 2 lateral
    • 3rd & 4th
    • Cerebral aqueduct (pathway of 3rd - 4th) when this is blocked during pregnancy in newborn brain grows huge
  14. What do Glial Cells do ?
    Support & Nourish neurons
  15. What are the Four classes of Glial Cells and what do they do ?
    • Oligodendrocytes - only found in CNS to produce Myelin (does not allow for regeneration)
    • Schwann Cells- only found in PNS, produce myelin (allow for regeneration)
    • Astrocytes - largest and star shaped, near blood vessels and give nutrients to brain
    • Microglia - involved in response to injury or disease (clean up)
  16. What does Contralateral and Ipsilateral mean ?
    • Contralateral - opposite side
    • Ipsilateral - same side

  17. Development of the Human Brain

  18. Hind Brain Division
  19. What does the Myelencephalon include ?
    • Medulla - life support functions (death occurs if damaged)
    • Reticular Formation - can admit or block sensory, many general anesthetics work here (coma if damaged)
  20. What does the Metencephalon include and what do they do ?
    • Pons - connection b/w cortex and cerebellum, role in sleep, dreaming, eye mvmnts
    • Cerebellum - 'little brain', Muscle coordination, learning, memory (alcohol disrupts this)
  21. What is included in the Mesencephalon and what do they do ?
    • Tectum - "roof" that includes: Superior Colliculus (vision), Inferior Colliculus (autitory)
    • Tegmentum - that includes: Periaqueductal gray (Analgesia - pain relief), Substantia nigra (Sensorimotor), Red nucleus (Sensorimotor)
  22. What does the Forebrain include and what are their functions ?
    • Thalamus - senses stop here before going to appropriate are of cortex (LGN-Vision, MGN- Audition, VPN- Touch & Taste)
    • Hypothalamus - Homeostatic control motivated behaviors & release of hormones from pituitary gland
  23. What does the Cerebral Cortex do and what is it made up of ?
    • Surrounds the cerebral hemispheres, convolutions serve to increase surface area
    • Made up of :
    • Sulci (small grooves)
    • Fissures (large grooves)
    • Gyri (bulges or bumps)

  24. Major Fissures of the Human Brain

  25. Cerebral Cortex
  26. What does the Cerebral Cortex include and what are their functions ?
    • Frontal - Motor, Complex cognitive functions
    • Parietal - Somatosensation, locating objects & self in space
    • Temporal - Audition, visual, recognition, memory
    • Occipital - Vision
  27. Within the Cerebral Cortex, what Gyrus is the Motor Cortex, and what Gyrus is the Somatosensroy and where are they located ?
    • Precentral Gyrus - Motor Cortex, near frontal lobe
    • Postcentral Gyrus - Somatosensory Cortex, parietal lobe
  28. What is the Corpus Collosum ?
    Largest hemisphere connecting tract
  29. What is the Commissures ?
    Pathway between the two hemispheres
  30. What are the Subcortical structures and what are their functions ?
    • Limbic System - (4 F's - Flight, Fight, Feed, Fuck) & Process emotions
    • Basal Ganglia - motor control

  31. Major structure of the Limbic System
  32. What are the two structures of the Limbic System & what are their functions ?
    • Hippocampus - Forming & retrieving memories
    • Amygdala - Organizes emotional responses
  33. What are the structures of the Basal Ganglia ?
    • Amygdala
    • Putamen
    • Caudate
    • Globus pallidus
    • Nucleus accumbens

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