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What is the Central Nervous System (CNS) designed to do ?
- Bring in information from the senses and the internal organs
- Assess, Process, Interpret, Relay information
- Output Behavior
What are two systems of the Nervous System & what do they do ?
- Central Nervous System (CNS)
- brain, spine
- Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
- Located out side of brain, and spine, and bring information into the CNS and carry signals out of the CNS
What are two categories of the PNS & what are their function ?
- Somatic Nervous System - interacting with external world
- Autonomic Nervous System - Interacting with internal organs
Within the Somatic Nervous System what do the Afferent & Efferent nerves do ?
- Afferent - sensory signals to CNS
- Efferent - motor signals from the CNS to skeletal muscles
Within the Autonomic Nervous System what do the Afferent & 2 Efferent nerves do ?
- Afferent - sensory from internal organs to CNS
- Efferent - Sympathetic (promotes fight/flight) & Parasympathetic (promotes rest/relaxation)
How are the distances of the synapse different with the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nerves ?
- Sympathetic is CLOSE to spinal cord
- Parasympathetic is FAR from spinal cord
Where in the spine is the Sympathetic nerves & Parasympathetic nerves connected to ?
- Symapthetic - Throacic & Lumbar
- Parasympathetic - Cranial & Sacral
What are the names and functions of the 12 Cranial Nerves ? (Oh, Oh, Oh, To Touch, And Feel Good Velvet, Ah Heaven)
- 1. Olfactory nerve - Smell
- 2. Optic - Vision
- 3. Oculomotor - Eye movements, control pupils, lens and tears
- 4. Trochlear - Eye movements
- 5. Trigeminal - Facial sensations, chewing
- 6. Abducens - Eye movements
- 7. Facial - Facial movements, salivary glands, taste
- 8. Vestibulo-cochlear - Acoustic branch and vestibular branch (balance, sound)
- 9. Glossopharyngeal - Throat muscles, salivary glands, taste
- 10. Vagus - heart, stomach, rest of abdominal
- 11. Spinal Accessory - Head, neck muscles
- 12. Hypoglossal - Tongue muscles
What protects the brain from Physical Damage ?
- Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
What protects the brain from Chemical Damage ?
What are the 3 Meninges and what do they protect ?
- Dura Mater - tough outer membrane (skull)
- Arachnoid Membrane - weblike and protects blood vessels and supply
- Pia Mater - protects CNS surface
What is Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) & where is it found ?
- Fluid that serves as a cushion
- Subarachnoid Space (between arachnoid membrane and pia mater)
- Ventricles (series of hollow interconnected chambers filled with CSF
What are the 4 ventricles that CSF fills & waht is Hydrocephalus refer to ?
- 2 lateral
- 3rd & 4th
- Cerebral aqueduct (pathway of 3rd - 4th) when this is blocked during pregnancy in newborn brain grows huge
What do Glial Cells do ?
Support & Nourish neurons
What are the Four classes of Glial Cells and what do they do ?
- Oligodendrocytes - only found in CNS to produce Myelin (does not allow for regeneration)
- Schwann Cells- only found in PNS, produce myelin (allow for regeneration)
- Astrocytes - largest and star shaped, near blood vessels and give nutrients to brain
- Microglia - involved in response to injury or disease (clean up)
What does Contralateral and Ipsilateral mean ?
- Contralateral - opposite side
- Ipsilateral - same side
Development of the Human Brain
Hind Brain Division
What does the Myelencephalon include ?
- Medulla - life support functions (death occurs if damaged)
- Reticular Formation - can admit or block sensory, many general anesthetics work here (coma if damaged)
What does the Metencephalon include and what do they do ?
- Pons - connection b/w cortex and cerebellum, role in sleep, dreaming, eye mvmnts
- Cerebellum - 'little brain', Muscle coordination, learning, memory (alcohol disrupts this)
What is included in the Mesencephalon and what do they do ?
- Tectum - "roof" that includes: Superior Colliculus (vision), Inferior Colliculus (autitory)
- Tegmentum - that includes: Periaqueductal gray (Analgesia - pain relief), Substantia nigra (Sensorimotor), Red nucleus (Sensorimotor)
What does the Forebrain include and what are their functions ?
- Thalamus - senses stop here before going to appropriate are of cortex (LGN-Vision, MGN- Audition, VPN- Touch & Taste)
- Hypothalamus - Homeostatic control motivated behaviors & release of hormones from pituitary gland
What does the Cerebral Cortex do and what is it made up of ?
- Surrounds the cerebral hemispheres, convolutions serve to increase surface area
- Made up of :
- Sulci (small grooves)
- Fissures (large grooves)
- Gyri (bulges or bumps)
Major Fissures of the Human Brain
What does the Cerebral Cortex include and what are their functions ?
- Frontal - Motor, Complex cognitive functions
- Parietal - Somatosensation, locating objects & self in space
- Temporal - Audition, visual, recognition, memory
- Occipital - Vision
Within the Cerebral Cortex, what Gyrus is the Motor Cortex, and what Gyrus is the Somatosensroy and where are they located ?
- Precentral Gyrus - Motor Cortex, near frontal lobe
- Postcentral Gyrus - Somatosensory Cortex, parietal lobe
What is the Corpus Collosum ?
Largest hemisphere connecting tract
What is the Commissures ?
Pathway between the two hemispheres
What are the Subcortical structures and what are their functions ?
- Limbic System - (4 F's - Flight, Fight, Feed, Fuck) & Process emotions
- Basal Ganglia - motor control
Major structure of the Limbic System
What are the two structures of the Limbic System & what are their functions ?
- Hippocampus - Forming & retrieving memories
- Amygdala - Organizes emotional responses
What are the structures of the Basal Ganglia ?
- Globus pallidus
- Nucleus accumbens