Lab coat, impossible gloves, goggles, Bio safety cabinet, and closed toe shoes.
Describe the proper way to wear a lab coat. How are lab coats stored?
full length (to knee level)
Stored in lab
seaweed that cause media to form gel like texture
Orion used his cell phone while he was working with a culture of bacteria at the lab bench. He
had no gloves. What are risks of this procedure?
Contaminate the cellphone with bacteria.
He may have to leave the cellphone in the lab for autoclave.
What is the last procedure that students should perform prior to leaving the lab?
Wash hands & disinfect the bench
What is the procedure for a fire?
1) Inform the instructor
2) Evacuate the area
3) Pull fire alarm
4) inform the security officer
What is the procedure if a culture spill occurs?
1) Inform the instructor
2) Cover with paper towels
3) Soak with disinfectant for 20 minutes
4) dispose in autoculture bin
When should goggles be worn?
When working with liquid culture
What is biosafety level 1 and 2?
Working with non-hazardous microbes (BSL 1)
Working with moderate hazardous microbes (BSL 2)
liquid or solid solution with nutrients that allow microbes to grow in lab
plate that used to grow culture in lab
General purpose media
nutrients that allow unspecific culture to grow
is used to inhibit the growth of some groups of microorganisms and select for the growth of other microorganisms.
contains special growth factors required by some microorganisms to grow.
shows differences between microbial colonies based on their cultural characteristics (what they look like when growing in colonies).
A partial hemolysis (blood cells turn green)
cause by enzyme that produced by bacteria
A complete hemolysis
The media become clear around the colony
Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA)
General purpose media nutrient
γ (gamma) hemolysis
Organism do not hemolyze red blood cells
Sabouraud’s agar plates
agar contains high concentrations of dextrose to inhibit the growth of most bacteria but encourage
the growth of fungi (mold and yeast).
Ocular lens magnify
Objective lens 10X
Objective lens 4X
Objective lens 40X
objective lens 100X
What is total magnification in light microscope?
Ocular lens magnification multiply by objective magnification.
15X * 4X = 60X Minimum
15X * 100X = 1500 Maximum
Which lens of the microscope does not involved in magnification? What does it do?
Focuses and concentrates the light reaching the
The minimal space between two things that require to tell them apart.
What is the maximum resolution of a light microscope?
0.2 μM (micrometer)
Working distance for objective lens 10X
Working distance for objective lens 40x
Working distance for objective lens 100X
Describe the proper method of carrying a microscope.
Use both hands, one holding the arm and the other holding the base.
Define parfocal and write an advantage of this design.
Parfocal design allow to focus on image with a low power objective lens and when you change the objective lens to high power lens, the image stay in focus.
Define resolution. A virus is 10 nanometers. Will the light microscope resolve this virus?
No. because a light microscope maximum resolution is 0.2 micrometer
Resolution is the ability to tell things apart
What is the purpose of immersion oil? Why is it used only with the oil immersion objective?
Reduce light bending and distortion of the image.
Only oil immersion lens is design to be used with immersion oil
What is the relationship between working distance of an objective lens and its magnification?
The higher the power of the objective the distance decreases and the magnification increases.
Venus is viewing pond water with living protozoa.
a. What is the appropriate objective to start with?______________
b. What is the appropriate ojective to use for studying the protozoa? ____________
c. Explain your answers.
A. Scanner (4X)
B. high dry (40)
First use the scanner objective to capture the protozoa, then use the high dry objective to magnify and see more detail
Which three domains classify all organism?
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
Which are the two types of cells
What are the kingdoms that comprise Eukarya?
Protists (Protozoa & Algae)
Fungi (Yeast & Mold)
Animalia (animals & Helminths)
organism that consists of a single cell
Organism that consists more then one cell
Fungi that are multicellular called _______
Fungi that have unicellular microscopic call ________.
In which domains are protozoa, algae and cyanobacteria classified.
Cyanobacteria → bacteria domain
Protozoa → Eukarya domain
Name one similarity and one difference between algal protists (Euglena), plants, and
Describe three different methods of locomotion you have seen today.
cilia, flagella, and pseudopodia.
Name three differences between paramecium and vinegar eels.
Paramecium: protista kingdom, has cilia,lives in water.
vinegar eel: Animalia kingdom, worm, lives in acidic environment
List unique characteristics of the kingdom fungi.
Have unicellular microscopic members called yeasts and multicellular microscopic & macroscopic members called molds
Differentiate between microscopic appearance of mold and yeast. You may use a drawing with
labels. What microscopic property of mold is used to aid in identification?
Spores & Hyphae
Microbes are ubiquitous.
Meaning that they live in any habitat on earth
Microbes that live in other organism
Microbes that inhabit our body and can benefit us and themselves.