(2) How and why did astronomy help change the world socially, culturally, and historically?
Astronomy has been used for navigation and to mark time. Through astronomy we have learned that the Earth is not flat, but in fact spherical, and early on we were able to estimate the size of Earth with astronomical calculations. Copernicus theorized that the planets all orbited the Sun, and Galileo's telescope 60 years later helped to support that theory. Challenging Geocentric beliefs brought him into conflict with the Catholic Church. Knowledge about the Moon's affect on the tides helped the US in the battle at Normandy. During the Cold War, society wanted to beat the USSR in the Space Race.