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The movement of leukocyte between blood and tissue, which is crucial for the immune response, are determined by the interactions between complimentary pair of adhesion molecule. One of which is express in the leukocyte surface and the other on the surface of vascular endothelial cells or other tissue cell. It is comprise of four structural classes of protien;
- 1. selectins
- 2. cell surface mucins called vascular addressins.
- 3. integrins
- 4. members of the immunoglobulin superfamily.
interferon (IFN-B and IFN-a)
when any human cell become infected with a virus it respond by making cytokines called type I interferon or simply interferon.
The immediate effect of interferon are to interfere with viral replication by the infected cell and to signal neighboring uninfected cell that they should prepare to resist a viral infection. Further effects of type I interferon is to make virus infected cell more vulnerable to attack by killer lymphocyte.
immunoglobulins / Antibodies
B-Cell receptors are also known as immunoglobulins . They are express on the surface of B cells where they bind to pathogens and serve as the B cell's pathogen-recognition receptors. Effector B cells, called plasma cells, secret soluble forms of this immunoglobulins, which are known as antibodies.
5 Main isotypes or classes of Immuglobulins
IgM is the first antibody produced in the immune response against a pathogen. It is principally made by plasma cell resident in lymph node, spleen and bone marrow and it circulates in blood and lymph.
On initiation of immune response, most of the antibodies that bind the antigen will be of a low affinity and multiple antige binding sites of IgM are needed if enough antibody is to bind sufficiently strongly to microorganism to be of any use.
The most important function of the IgG antibodies is to facilitate the engulfment and destruction of extracellular microorganism and toxins by phagocytes.
IgG is the most abundant antibody in the internal body fluids, including blood and lymph. IgG is much smaller and flexible than an IgM, properties that give it easier access to antigen in the extracellular space.
The flexibility of the hinge region allows the two arms to move relative to each other. This enable both of the antigen binding site to bind repeated epitopes on the surfaces of pathogen.
any molecule, macromolecule, virus particle, or cell that contains a structure recognized and bound by an immunoglobulin or T cell receptor is called its corresponding antigen.
activation of B cell by a pathogen lead to proliferation and differentiation of the B cell into dedicated antibody factories called plasma cell.
One way in which antibodies reduced infection is by binding tightly to a site on a pathogen so as to inhibit pathogen growth, replication, or interaction with human cell. This mechanism is called neutralization.
allergy or hypersensitivity
a state or allergy or hypersensitibity arises when the immune system reacts against innocuous substance in the environment. such as foods, grass pollens, house dust, or dander from pets. Any such non-infectious antigen that causes allergy is known as an allergen.
CD8 T Cell are cytotoxic and their main function is to kill cell that have become infected with a virus or some other intracellular pathogen.
The general function of the CD4 T cells or helper cell is to help other cells of the immune system to respond to extracellular source of infection. Helper T cells are involve in stimulating B cells to make antibodies.
They activate macrophage to phagocytose and kill extracellular pathogens and to secrete cytokines and other biologically active molecules that affect the course of the immune response.
Proteins in the cytosol are degraded by a large barrel shaped protein complex called the proteasome.