chapter 2

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  1. -discovering previously unsuspected links between features of human reproductive biology
    -thinking about adaptive function, such as whether men have adaptions to detect when women ovulate or whether women have adaptions to respond to their own situation
    two features of evolutionary psych
  2. -explains known facts
    -leads to new predictions
    -provides guidance to important domains of scientific inquiry
    natural selection
  3. -adaptations
    -random effects
    three products of the evolutionary process
  4. inherited and reliably developing characteristics that came into existence through natural selection because they helped to solve problems of survival or reproduction better than alternative designs existing in the population during the period of their evolution. ex: umbilical chord
  5. characteristics that do not solve adaptive problems and do not have functional design; they are "carried along" with characteristics that do have functional design because that happen to be coupled with those adaptations; example is belly button
  6. random effects produced by forces such as chance mutations, sudden and unprecedented changes in the environment, or chance effects during development, ex is a particular shape of a belly button
  7. an _____ must have gene for that ____
  8. an adaptation must develop reliably among species members in all "normal" environments. that is, to qualify as an adaptation, it must be _____ of most or all of the members of a given species
  9. selection acts as a ____ in each generation, filtering out the many features that do not contribute to propagation and letting through those that do
  10. refers to the adaptive problem it evolved to solve
  11. refers to the statistical composite of selection pressures that occurred during an adaptation's period of evolution responsible for producing the adaptation. the ___ for each adaptation refers to the selected forces, or adaptive problems that were responsible for shaping it over deep evolutionary time
    environment of evolutionary adaptedness or EEA
  12. the time span during which it was constructed, piece by piece, until it came to characterize the universal design of the species
    period of evolution
  13. evolution by natural selection is understood from the "gene's eye" perspective - differential gene replication is the engine of the evolutionary process by which adaptions are formed
    genetic evolutionary theory
  14. represented by theories such as Trivers theory of parental investment and sexual selection in which he argues that the sex that invests more resources in its offspring will evolve to be more choosy or discriminating in selecting a mate. The sex that invests fewer resources in its offspring in contrast will evolve to be less choosy and more competitive with members of its own sex
    middle evolutionary theories
  15. middle level theories must be compatible with general _____ theory, but they must also stand or fall on their own merits
  16. proposes the existence of a specific psychological mechanism-a desire- that is designed to solve a specific human adaptive problem
    specific evolutionary hypothesis
  17. theory driven approaches
    top down
  18. observation driven approaches
    bottom up
  19. each species has faced somewhat unique selection pressures during its evolutionary history and therefore has confronted a unique set of ____ problems
  20. because evolution by selection is the only known causal process capable of producing the fundamental components of that human nature, all _____ theories are implicitly or explicitly evolutionary
  21. focuses more narrowly on the analysis of the human mind as a collection of evolved mechanisms, the contexts that activate those mechanisms, and the behaviors generated by those mechanisms
    evolutionary psychology
  22. -it solved a specific problem of survival or reproduction recurrently over evolutionary history
    -designed to take in only a narrow slice of information
    -tells an organism the particular adaptive problem it is facing
    -transformed through decision rules into output (if, then)
    -can be physiological activity, information to other psychological mechanisms, or manifest behavior
    -directed toward the solution to a specific adaptive problem
    definition of an evolved psychological mechanism
  23. qualities that are part of our selection mechanisms - to solve these selection problems successfully
    specific selection criteria
  24. 1) general solutions fail to guide the organism to the correct adaptive solutions
    2) even if they do work, general solutions lead to too many errors and thus are costly to the organism
    3) what constitutes a successful solution differs from problem to problem
    why problem specificity of adaptive mechanisms tend to be favored over generality
  25. the ___ of mechanisms depends on contextual input from the _____
    activation, environment
  26. humans gain their flexibility from having a large number of complex, ___, _____ psychological mechanisms
    specific, functional
  27. the more mechanisms we have, the greater the range of ____ we can perform, and hence the greater _____ of our behavior
    behaviors, flexibility
  28. the human mind cannot consist solely of isolated separate mechanisms. selection favors functionally specialized mechanisms ___ ___ ____ ____ in various combinations. adaptions speak to each other
    that work well together
  29. learning requires structures in the brain to ___ learning
  30. testing predictions about the occurrence of the trait among species other than the animals whose behavior the researcher is trying to understand
    comparative method. which is a powerful method for testing hypotheses about adaptive function
  31. all known groups have ___ ___, another structural feature of our species. the fact that this exists suggest a class of adaptive problems
    social hierarchies
  32. identifying universal features of human social interaction - such as group living and social hierarchies - provides a guide to ____ human ___ problems
    solving, adaptive
  33. enables us to identify the adaptive problems that must be solved for the phenomenon we observe to occur as well as the design features of the potential adaptations that are capable of solving them
    task analysis
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chapter 2
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