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What happens when a ball is released?
- Ball drops - due to gravity
- Dissipates heat to the floor every bounce - comes to rest
- Ball attains minimum energy state
Are we right to assume that only exothermic reactions occur spontaneously?
- No... Not all spontaneous changes are exothermic.
- Ice melts at room temperature
- Water evaporates
States of order for H2O are...
- Ice crystals: highly ordered
- Liquid water: fairly ordered
- Water vapour and steam: disordered
Second law of thermodynamics
- During spontaneous change, energy and matter become more disordered.
- Release of enthalpy
- Increase in entropy
What decides if a reaction is spontaneous?
- Gibbs free energy
- ΔG = ΔH - TΔS
- When ΔG<0, the process is spontaneous
ΔG=0 and the reaction seems to stop
When a reaction has reached equilibrium...
...the composition doesn't change
At the equilibrium point, you can use the concentrations to find K using formula
- K= (CcxDd) / (AaxBb)
- Where aA + bB <> cC + dD