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Define Developmental Science
The study of all changes we experience throughout our lifespan
Define Child Development
The study of changes and constancy from conception through adolescence
Define interdisciplinary study
A study that encompasses multiple fields
What are the domains of Child Development?
Physical, Cognitive, and Social-Emotional
What does the physical domain of Child Development cover?
- Body size and proportions
- Functioning of body systems
- Perceptual and motor capabilities
What does the cognitive domain of Child Development cover?
What does the social-emotional domain of Child Development cover?
- Emotional communication
- Knowledge about others
- Interpersonal skills and relationships
- Moral reasoning and behavior
Name the periods of development
- Infancy and Toddlerhood
- Early Childhood
- Middle Childhood
- Emerging Adulthood
When does the prenatal period of development occur?
Conception → Birth
When does the infancy & toddlerhood period of development occur?
Birth → 2 years
When does the early childhood period of development occur?
2 → 6 years
When does the middle childhood period of development occur?
6 → 11 years
When does the adolescence period of development occur?
11 → 18 years
When does the emerging adulthood period of development occur?
18 → 25 years
What is continuous development?
The view that development is a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with
What is discontinuous development?
A view of development as a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times
What was the view of children in the Medieval Era?
- Childhood (to age 7 or 8) regarded as separate phase with special needs and protections
- Children were both angelic and demonic
What was the view of children in the 16th Century?
- Puritan "child depravity" views
- Civilize the children
What was the view of children in the 17th Century?
- John Locke "tabula rasa" or "blank slate" view
- Continuous development
- Their experience now is gonna be their future
What was the view of children in the 18th Century?
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau "noble savages" view
- Natural maturation
- Born with natural sense of right vs wrong
- Innate plan for growth
- Adults should be receptive to children's needs
- Children control their own futures
What is the evolutionary theory of development?
Darwin's ideas of natural selection and survival of the fittest are still influential
What is the normative approach of development?
- Hall & Gesell: Age-related averages based on measurements of large numbers of children
- Hall is known as the grandfather of psychology
What is the mental testing movement of development?
Binet & Simon: Early developers of intelligence tests
What are the three parts of personality according to Freud?
Id, Ego, and Superego
What is the Id?
- Largest portion of the mind
- Unconscious, present at birth
- Source of biological needs & desires
What is the ego?
- Conscious, rational part of mind
- Emerges in early infancy
- Redirects id impulses acceptably
What is the superego?
- The conscience
- Develops from ages 3 → 6 from interactions with caregiver
What are Freud's psychosexual stages?
What are Erikson's psychosocial stages?
- Basic trust v. mistrust
- Autonomy v. shame and doubt
- Initiative v. guilt
- Industry v. inferiority
- Identity v. role confusion
- Intimacy v. isolation
- Generation v. stagnation
- Integrity v. despair
When does the basic trust v. mistrust stage occur?
Birth → 1 year
When does the autonomy v. shame and doubt stage occur?
1 → 3 years
When does the initiative v. guilt stage occur?
3 → 6 years
When does the industry v. inferiority stage occur?
6 → 11 years
When does the identity v. role confusion stage occur?
When does the intimacy v. isolation stage occur?
When does the generativity v. stagnation stage occur?
When does the integrity v. despair stage occur?
How does classical conditioning work?
- Stimulus → Response
- John Watson used it to show that adults can control children
How does operant conditioning work?
- Reinforcers & Punishments
- Coined by B.F. Skinner
How does the social cognitive approach work?
- Modeling self-efficacy
- Bandura's experiment showed that if you observe a behavior, you're most likely to replicate it
What is information processing?
- An approach that views the human mind as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows and that regards cognitive development as a continuous process.
- Used as guides for asking questions about broad changes in children's thinking
- Similar to Piaget's theory in that it regards children as active, sense-making beings who modify their own thinking in response to environmental demands
- BUT it doesn't divide development into stages
- Continuous development
What is developmental cognitive neuroscience?
- An area of investigation that brings together researchers from psychology, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing child's cognitive processing and behavior patterns
- During infancy & early childhood, the brain is highly plastic
- The brain retains considerable plasticity throughout life
What is ethology?
- An approach concerned with the adaptive value of behavior and its evolutionary theory
- Roots traced to Darwin
- Konrad and Niko Tinbergen observed:
- -Critical period
- -Sensitive period
- John Bowlby applied ethological theory to understanding the human caregiver-infant relationship
What is imprinting?
- The early following behavior of certain baby birds
- ex: baby geese follow momma goose to ensure that they stay close to momma goose & be fed and protected
What is the critical period?
A limited time span during which the child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of an approximately stimulating environment
What is sensitive period?
- A time that is biologically optimal for certain capacities to emerge and which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences
- ↪its boundaries are less well-defined than those of a critical period. Development can occur later, but it's harder to induce.
What is evolutionary developmental psychology?
- An approach that seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those competencies change with age
- ↪evolutionary psychologists wants to understand the entire organism-environment system
What is Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory?
- Children acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture through social interaction, especially cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of their society
- He agreed with Piaget that children are active, constructive beings
- BUT whereas Piaget emphasized children's independent efforts to make sense of their world, Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a socially mediated process, in which children depend on assistance from adults and more expert peers as they tackle new challenges
What is the ecological systems theory?
- Bronfenbrenner's approach, which views the child as developing within a complex system of relationship affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment, from immediate settings of family and school to broad culture values, customs, and resources.
What is a microsystem?
- In the ecological systems theory, the innermost level of the environment, consisting of activities and interaction pattern in the child's immediate surroundings
- ex: the individual
What is a mesosystem?
- In the ecological systems theory, the connections between children's microsystems, or immediate settings
- ex: immediate family; child-care center or school; neighborhood play area
What is an exosystem?
- In the ecological systems theory, the social settings that do not contain children but nevertheless affect children's experiences
- ex: parents' workplaces; religious institutions; health and welfare services in the community; parents' social networks; extended family; neighbors and friends
What is a macrosystem?
In the ecological systems theory, the cultural values, laws, customs, and resources that influence experiences and interactions at inner levels of the environment
What is a chronosystem?
- In the ecological systems theory, the temporal changes in environments either externally imposed or rising from within the child, that produce new conditions affecting development
- ex: birth of a sibling; beginning of school; a move to a new neighborhood; parents' divorce
What are chromosomes?
Rod-like structures that store and transmit genetic information (DNA)
How many chromosomes do we have?
- 23 pairs
- aka 46 chromosomes
What are autosomes?
- Non-sex chromosomes
- We have 22 pairs
What are gametes?
- Sex cells
- sperm in males
- ova in females
How does meiosis work?
- Original cell (46 CHROMOSOMES PER CELL)
- Prophase 1: Chromosomes duplicate and form X's with the clone (92 CHROMOSOMES PER CELL)
- Metaphase 1: Pairs of X's cross over each other and share info
- Anaphase 1: Mixed X's separate into 2 groups of 46 chromosomes
- Telophase 1 & Prophase 2: 2 cells of 46 chromosomes each (46 CHROMOSOMES PER CELL)
- Metaphase 2: Each cell has the chromosomes line up in the center
- Anaphase 2: X's break into V's
- Telophase 2: Each cell's V shaped chromosomes split into 2 even groups and form new cells (23 CHROMOSOMES PER CELL)
What are dizygotic twins?
- Fraternal twins
- The most common type of multiple birth, resulting from the release and fertilization of two ova
- The frequency is about 1 in every 60 births in the USA
What are monozygotic twins?
- Identical twins
- Happens when a zygote that has started to duplicate separates into two clusters of cells that develop into two individuals
- The frequency is about 1 in every 330 births all over the world
What are the maternal factors linked to fraternal twinning?
- Family history of twinning
- Number of births
- Fertility drugs and in vitro fertilization
What is an allele?
- Each form of a gene
- Located at a specific position on a specific chromosome
- A DNA coding that determines distinct traits that can be passed on from parent to offspring
- Can be homozygous or heterozygous
What are modifier genes?
Genes that enhance or dilute the effects of other genes
What is incomplete dominance?
- A pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed in the phenotype, resulting in a combined trait, or one that is intermediate between the two
- ex: sickle cell trait is a heterozygous condition (not to be confused with sickle cell anemia, which occurs when two recessive alleles for it are present)
What is an X-linked inheritance?
A pattern of inheritance in which a recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome, so that males are more likely than females to be affected
What is genomic imprinting?
A pattern of inheritance in which alleles are imprinted, or chemically marked, in such a way that one member is activated, regardless of its makeup
What is polygenic inheritance?
A pattern of inheritance in which many genes affect the characteristic in question
What is Down syndrome?
- Most common chromosomal disorder
- Occurs 1 out of 770 live births
- Sometimes called trisomy 21 because the 21st pair of chromosomes fails to separate during meiosis and ends up with three chromosomes instead of two
What are some sex chromosomal disorders?
- XYY syndrome
- Triple X syndrome
- Klinefelter syndrome (XXY)
- Turner syndrome (XO)
What is genetic counseling?
A communication process designed to help couples assess their chances of giving birth to a baby with a heredity disorder and choose the best course of action in view of risks and family goals
What are prenatal diagnostic methods?
Medical procedures that permit detection of developmental problems before birth
What is direct influence?
- It's when the behavior of one family member helps sustain a pattern of interaction that promotes or undermines well-being
- Can go both ways
- Located in the microsystem of the ecological systems theory
What is indirect influence?
- It's when the relationship between two other people affects the child
- Located in the mesosystem
What is socioeconomic status?
- A measure of an individual's social position and economic well-being that combines three related variables:
- -years of education
- -the prestige of one's job and the skill it requires
What is a subculture?
A group of people with beliefs and customs that differ from those of the larger culture
What are extended-family households?
A household in which parent and child live with one or more adult relatives
What are collectivist societies?
Societies in which people define themselves as part of a group and stress group goals over individual goals
What are individualistic societies?
Societies in which people define themselves as separate entities and are largely concerned with their own personal needs
What are public policies?
- Laws and government programs designed to improve current conditions
- ex: when poverty increases and families become homeless, a country might decide to build more low-cost housing, provide economic aid to homeowners having difficulty making mortgage payments, and increase welfare benefits
What is behavioral genetics?
A field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to this diversity in human traits and abilities
What do heritability estimates measure?
- The extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors
- They're obtained from kinship studies
What are kinship studies?
- Studies which compare the characteristics of family members
- Most common one compares identical twins with fraternal twins
What is range of reaction?
Each person's unique, genetically determined response to the environment
What is canalization?
- The tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes
- Ex: infant perceptual and motor development seems to be strongly canalized because all normal human babies eventually roll over, reach for objects, sit up, crawl, and walk. It takes extreme conditions to modify these behaviors or cause them not to appear. In contrast, intelligence and personality are less strongly canalized; they vary much more with changes in the environment.
What is genetic-environmental correlation?
The idea that heredity influences the environments to which individuals are exposed
What is niche-picking?
- The tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity
- Infants and young children can't do much niche-picking because adults select environments for them
- Older children and adolescents are much more in charge of their environments
What is epigenesis?
Development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment