Measurements and Calculations

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
259309
Filename:
Measurements and Calculations
Updated:
2014-01-30 17:55:31
Tags:
Chemistry
Folders:
Chemistry
Description:
Chemistry 130; Chapter 2
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  1. What is measurement?
    • Its the quantitative observation/comparison 
    • Contains two parts: A number and unit
  2. Scientific Notation
    A technique used to express very large or very small numbers based on powers of 10

    Ex. 1.23 X 102
  3. Standard Notation
    The number before it is placed in scientific notation
  4. Kilo
    • Symbol: K
    • Value: 1,000
    • SN: 103
  5. Centi
    • Symbol: c
    • Value: 0.01
    • SN: 10-2
  6. Milli
    • Symbol: m
    • Value: 0.001
    • SN: 10-3
  7. Length is measured in...
    SI unit: Meter (m)
  8. 1 inch =
    2.54cm (exact number)
  9. Solid volume is measured in...
    SI unit: m3

  10. Gas or liquid volume is measure in...
    SI unit: mL
  11. 1mL =
    1 cm3
  12. What is volume?
    The amount of 3-dimensional space in m3
  13. What is mass?
    • Amount of matter present 
    • SI unit: kg
  14. Uncertainty in Measurement
    • A measurement always has some amount of uncertainty
    • Comes from limitations of techniques & equipment
  15. Significant Figures
    Can be used to indicate the uncertainty of a measurement.   

    (0.57 ± 0.01)
  16. Rules for counting SF's
    • All nonzero integers are always significant 
    • Leading zeros never count as SFs
    • Captive zeros are always significant 
    • Trailing zeros are significant if there is decimal pt
  17. Unlimited number of SFs come from..
    Exact numbers!

    • ex. 2.54 cm/in
    • 1000 mL in a L
    • 121 students in a room
  18. An exact numbers are
    • Known with certainty 
    • Defined numbers: 1 minute = 60 seconds ect

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