Measurements and Calculations
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What is measurement?
 Its the quantitative observation/comparison
 Contains two parts: A number and unit

Scientific Notation
A technique used to express very large or very small numbers based on powers of 10
Ex. 1.23 X 10^{2}

Standard Notation
The number before it is placed in scientific notation

Kilo
 Symbol: K
 Value: 1,000
 SN: 10^{3}

Centi
 Symbol: c
 Value: 0.01
 SN: 10^{2}

Milli
 Symbol: m
 Value: 0.001
 SN: 10^{3}

Length is measured in...
SI unit: Meter (m)

1 inch =
2.54cm (exact number)

Solid volume is measured in...
SI unit: m^{3
}

Gas or liquid volume is measure in...
SI unit: mL


What is volume?
The amount of 3dimensional space in m^{3}

What is mass?
 Amount of matter present
 SI unit: kg

Uncertainty in Measurement
 A measurement always has some amount of uncertainty
 Comes from limitations of techniques & equipment

Significant Figures
Can be used to indicate the uncertainty of a measurement.
(0.57 ± 0.01)

Rules for counting SF's
 All nonzero integers are always significant
 Leading zeros never count as SFs
 Captive zeros are always significant
 Trailing zeros are significant if there is decimal pt

Unlimited number of SFs come from..
Exact numbers!
 ex. 2.54 cm/in
 1000 mL in a L
 121 students in a room

An exact numbers are
 Known with certainty
 Defined numbers: 1 minute = 60 seconds ect