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What is Bakers Percentage?
- The weight ratio of flour to ingredient.
- Total weight of ingredient/total weight of flour x 100 = % of ingredient
What are the grades of flour?
- Extra Short, Short, Long
- First, Second
The seven main components in the composition of flour are?
Starch, protein, ash/mineral content, pigments, moisture, gums, fats/emulsifiers.
The process that occurs when oxygen from the air reacts with proteins and other components of flour during mixing is called?
What are two proteins found in wheat flour?
Glutenin and Gliadin
What are the three phases of mixing in the production of doughs and batters?
- 1. Blending
- 2. Forming
- 3. Developing the dough
What is the stretchable protein structure in a wheat flour mixture?
This process occurs when proteins and sugars together are subjected to high heat, thus taking place on the surface of high-protein foods? Known as caramelization or browning on starches, sugars.
The Maillard reaction
Strong flour is made from wheat with a (___) protein content.
The order of patent flour by protein is?
- 1. High-gluten, 14%
- 2. Bread, 11-13.5%
- 3. Pastry, 9%
- 4. Cake, 8%
Euro flour has 11-11.5%
These types of flour stay in a lump when squeezed in hand?
What is the strongest flour?
Patent bread flour
To thicken pie filings that are to be frozen, use this type of starch?
What are the six proposes of sugar in baking?
- 1. Add sweetness and flavor
- 2. Create tenderness and fineness of texture, partly by weakening the gluten structure
- 3. Give the crust color
- 4. Increase keeping qualities by retaining moisture
- 5. Act as creaming agents with fats; foaming agents with eggs
- 6. Provide food for yeast
Coarse sugar is good for making syrups. When creaming fats, this type of sugar used?
Icing/confectioners' sugar are good for icing and dusting.what are their names?
- Xxx or xx dusting
- 10x smooth textured icing
- 6x dusting
A suitable fat for pie crust are?
Regular shortening, butter, lard
Why are pasteurized eggs used for many preparations?
Sanitation reasons. Reduction of salmonella and food poisoning.
What are the eight functions of eggs?
- 1. Structure
- 2. Emulsifying of fats and liquids- creating smooth batters by volume and texture
- 3. Leavening- tiny air cell maker
- 4. Shortening-
- 5. Moisture-
- 6. Flavor-
- 7. Nutritional value-
- 8. Color- adding yellow from yolk and browning crust
Production/incorporation of gases in a baked product to increase volume and produce shape and texture.
The lowest protein content in this wheat type is?
Soft winter wheat
The outer portion of the wheat endosperm is ___ than the inner portion.
It's darker in color, harder,.and breaks into larger pieces during milling
Mineral content in flour is also called?
Margarine contains ___ amount of water?
Hearth and Deck ovens bake directly on this surface?
The floor of the oven
Expelling carbon dioxide, equalization of temp, relaxes gluten, redistributes yeast is done by this act?
Banneton is used for what?
To measure the density of sugar syrups, you use this?
The most important chef in the early part of the 20th century was Ecoffier?
Only wheat flour will develop enough gluten to make yeast bread?
Candy maker, confectioner
French term for ice cream maker
Critical Control Point - Step 2 in HAACP; how to control a hazard
The highest weight per dozen of Egg size is?
Low in fat and sugar.
Higher proportions of fat, sugar, even egg dough, like Brioche & sweet rolls.
What are the three basic techniques for mixing and fermenting yeast doughs?
- 1. Combine into smooth dough
- 2. Distribute yeast evenly
- 3. Develop the gluten
Extensibility of dough
ability of the dough to be stretched into different shapes
Elasticity of dough
When the dough is stretched, it should spring back. Loaves flatten without elastic dough.
Teancity of dough
the resistance of dough when beign stretched.