Auditory System And Hearing Loss

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MJMougs
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259318
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Auditory System And Hearing Loss
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2014-02-03 20:37:53
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Hearing Loss
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IIHIS Unit 1
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  1. An incision in the eardrum to allow drainage because of fluid build up?
    myringotomy
  2. The Outer portion of the semi-circular canals is filled with what?
    Perilymph
  3. The 3 semi-circular canals?
    • -Superior
    • -Posterior
    • -Lateral
  4. The tight tissue on the lower 4/5th of the tympanic membrane?
    Pars Tensa
  5. What are the names of the three tapering tubes found in the sections of the cochlea?
    • Scala Vestibuli
    • Scala Tympani
    • Scala Media
  6. The outward projection or bump on the front of the ear that is suspended over the ear canal?
    Tragus
  7. Triangular shaped tube in the cochlea that contains the auditory nerve endings?
    Scala Media
  8. What is Tympanosclerosis?
    White, Chalky Calcium deposits caused by a degeneration of tissue
  9. Perilymph fluid protects this?
    Endolymph Fluid
  10. The Semi-Circular canals detect?
    Rotational movement in any direction for balance and equilibrium
  11. The Inner raised area or rim of the Pinna
    Antihelix
  12. The 2 Part outer wall of the Scala Media is made up of?
    • Spiral Ligament
    • Stria Vasculoris
  13. Seperates the Scala Media from the Scala Tympani?
    Basilar Membrane
  14. Holes/Spots on the tympanic membrane that have healed and reflect light?
    Monomeric Spots
  15. Neurons that transmit from the cochlea to the brain?
    Afferent Fibers
  16. The vestibular and cochlear nerves combine to become?
    Auditory Nerves (VIII Cranial Nerve)
  17. What is the Tensor Tympani?
    Muscle that attaches to the handle of the malleus
  18. Tiny wax producing hairs in the canal
    Cila
  19. What is the technical name of the ear canal?
    External Auditory Meatus
  20. What is a prolapsed canal?
    • Breakdown or sag of tissue around the canal
    • Collapse of the canal
  21. Wax producing glands?
    ceruminous
  22. The irregularly shaped space inside the oval window behind the stapes footplate?
    Vestibule
  23. What is otitis media?
    • Presence of fluid in the middle ear
    • Causes a conductive loss
  24. What is a Conductive Hearing Loss?
    • Loss do to something wrong with the outer or middle ear
    • Physical issue
    • Possibly able to fix
  25. What is the Reissmers Membrane?
    Separates the scala media from the scala vestibuli
  26. 3 main types of Hearing loss?
    • Sensiorneural
    • Conductive
    • Mixed
  27. Removal of diseased mastoid cells?
    Mastoidecomy
  28. The technical name of the ear wax?
    Cerumen
  29. 3 parts of the inner ear?
    • Semi-circular canals
    • Vestibule
    • Cochlea
  30. To temporarily correct ossicular fixation this surgery manipulates the stapes footplate to eliminate the conductive component to hearing loss?
    Stapes mobilization
  31. The vestibule contains two membranous sacs?
    • Utricle
    • Saccule
  32. What is Otosclerosis?
    Disease which causes spongy changes in the bony capsule surrounding the inner ear
  33. The inner ear contains 2 fluids?
    • Perilymph
    • Endolymph
  34. The ossification of the ligaments of the ossicular chain?
    Ossicular Fixation
  35. The Entrance into the Ear Canal?
    Aperture
  36. The technical name for the ear drum?
    Tympanic membrane
  37. What provides a direct connection from the outside air to enter the middle ear through the Eustachian tube?
    Nasopharynx
  38. What are the 3 bones of the ossicles?
    • Malleus
    • Incus
    • Stapes
  39. Three surgical techniques used to treat cases of otosclerosis?
    • Fenestration
    • Stapes Mobilization
    • Stapedectomy
  40. Surgery that uses a plastic or steel strut to replace the completely removed stapes?
    Stapedectomy
  41. What is Supportive Otitis Media?
    • Fluid build up in the middle ear cause by bacteria
    • Conductive Loss
  42. What is the stapedius Muscle?
    Attaches to the neck of the stapes
  43. What is Ossicular Discontinuity?
    • Damage to the ossicles that causes them to no longer articulate properly
    • Lever action is reduced or eliminated
  44. The involuntary response of the Tensor Tympani and Stapedius Muscles to stiffen or move out of alignment in response to loud sound?
    Acoustic Reflex
  45. How does the middle ear act as a transformer?
    The ossicular chain acting as a lever increases the sound pressure delivered to the oval window.
  46. What is aero-otitis media, or barotrauma?
    Eustachian doesn't open properly
  47. The 3 layers of the tympanic membrane
    • skin
    • fibrous
    • mucus membrane
  48. Near the top of the Pinna between the Heliz and the Anti-helix?
    Triangular Fossa
  49. The outer edge or fold of the Pinna?
    Helix
  50. The lower tip of the ear?
    Lobule/Ear lobe
  51. Bulk of the rear outer curved area?
    Scaphold Fossa
  52. This part of the Helix overlaps the Anti-helix at the upper front edge?
    Crus
  53. Surgery in which the ear drum and most of the ossicles were removed and a tiny window is made through the bony wall.  A flap of skin placed over the window?
    Fenestration
  54. Type of energy transmitted by the cochlear nerve?
    Electro-Chemical
  55. Spiral Ganglion unite like a cable forming this?
    Cochlear Nerve
  56. Groups of nerves that combine in the modiolus of the cochlea?
    Spiral Ganglion
  57. Removal of diseased ossicular chain and mastoid cells?
    Radical Mastoidectomy
  58. Tumor occurring in the middle ear?
    Cholesteatoma
  59. Where the Scala Vestibuli and the Scala Tympani come together?
    Helicotrema
  60. Temporal Theory?
    Holds that below 1000Hz that Place Theory is correct. Above 1000Hz nerve fibers fire in volleys
  61. The Volley Theory?
    There are sequences of firing which allow for the transmission of neural energy from the inner ear to the brain.
  62. The Place Theory?
    There are specific places in the cochlea, the pathways to the brain and the temporal lobe for specific frequencies.
  63. The base of the cochlea, nearest to the oval window responds to which frequencies?
    High
  64. The two layers in the cochlea that contain perilymph fluid?
    • Scala Vestibuli
    • Scala Tympani
  65. The gelatinous structure that attaches tot he supporting cells a the inner side?
    Tectorial Membrane
  66. What is the bony prominence that seperates the oval and round windows forming the wall of the cochlea?
    Promontory
  67. The upper fifth of the tympanic membrane that is loose?
    Pars Flaccida
  68. When a collection of nerve fibers leave the cochlea and become part of the central nervous system is called?
    Nuclei
  69. Nerve Fibers combine here forming Spiral Ganglion in the Cochlea?
    Modiolus
  70. What is the domed end of the Scala Media?
    Cupola
  71. What is an inflammation of the walls of the external auditory canal called?
    Otitis Externa
  72. The front end of each semi-circular canal, closet to the middle ear, enlarges to form?
    Ampulla
  73. When the fluid remains trapped in the middle ear after an infection and blocks the Eustachian tube?
    Serous Otitis Media or Middle Ear Effusion
  74. The top of the Malleus articulates with the top of the Incus; the bottom of the Incus meets the head of the Stapes is called?
    Incudostapedial Junction
  75. The bottom rim of the ear between the Tragus and the Antitragus?
    Intertragal Notch
  76. How does the Middle Ear act as a transducer?
    Changes acoustic energy from the ear drum to mechanical energy in the ossicular chain
  77. Neurons that transmit from the brain to the cochlea?
    Efferent Fibers
  78. What does the Annular Ligament do?
    Holds the footplate of the stapes in the Oval Window
  79. What is the Round Window?
    Membrane covered opening in the bone separating the middle and inner ear?
  80. What is Mixed Hearing Loss?
    Combination of Conductive (Physical) and Sensorinueral (Nerve) Loss.
  81. What part runs from the lower part of the middle ear cavity to the upper part of the throat?
    The Eustachian Tube
  82. What does the Oval Window separate?
    Opening in the bone between the air filled middle ear and the fluid filled inner ear.
  83. What separates the cochlea into 3 parts?
    • Osseous Spiral Lamina
    • Spiral Ligament
  84. The endings of the Vestibular Nerve, which becomes a branch of the Auditory Nerve are contained where?
    • Ampullae
    • Utricle
    • Saccule
  85. What is the name of the ring that holds the ear drum in place?
    Annulus Ring
  86. What is the normal color of the tympanic membrane?
    • Translucent
    • Pearly White
    • Pinkish Grey
  87. Oil producing glands?
    Sebaceous
  88. What is the ossicular chain?
    The linkage of the malleus, incus, and the stapes suspended by ligaments.
  89. What is Sensorineural Hearing Loss?
    • Occurs inside the cochlea
    • Most common
    • Nerve damage
    • Can Not be repaired
  90. What are the 3 major parts of the ear?
    • Outer
    • Middle
    • Inner
  91. How does the inner ear act as a transducer?
    The stapes footplate changes mechanical energy from the ossicular chain to hydraulic energy
  92. The small hollow or bowl leading directly into the ear canal?
    Concha
  93. Ringing in the ears, usually a low frequency sound?
    Tinnitus
  94. What is the name of the fleshy part that protrudes from the side of the head?
    Pinna/auricle
  95. The bump or projection on the back part of the inner rim?
    Antitragus
  96. What is a tympanoplasty?
    Replacing the ossicular chain with prothesis and grafts skin over the ear drum.
  97. What are the two purposes of the Tensor Tympaini and Stapedius Muscles?
    • To keep the bone linkages taut so that it can respond appropriately to vibrations
    • Prevent extreme motions of the linkage which might result in damage from very loud sounds
  98. Auditory and Facial Nerves leave the Modialus through an opening in the bone called?
    Internal Auditory Meatus
  99. What characteristic is associated with the Organic Loss of Recruitment
    A small increase in sound intensity results in a rapid increase in apparent loudness.
  100. A hallucination of movement, arising from problems within the vestibular portion of the inner ear
    Vertigo
  101. Organic Loss caused by trauma to the middle ear by exposure to a single very loud sound, explosion, or high noise levels for a long time?
    Acoustic Trauma
  102. Organic Loss resulting from exposure to high noise levels?
    Noise Induced
  103. A reversible drop in hearing thresholds from noise exposure?
    Temporary Threshold Shift (TTS)
  104. What is a Permanent Threshold Shift (PTS)?
    Loss caused by non treated Temporary Threshold Shift caused my noise exposure.
  105. What is Presbycusis?
    Hearing loss resulting from, or associated with increasing age.
  106. What are the 4 types of Presbycusis?
    • Sensory
    • central
    • metabolic
    • mechanical
  107. With Presbycusis what is a Sensory Loss?
    Loss involving the Hair Cells; patients exhibit an abrupt high frequency loss.
  108. With Presbycusis what is a Central Loss?
    Mild loss, with gradual loss in the high frequencies, usually from ganglion cell loss.
  109. What is Phonemic Regression?
    Poor word discrimination
  110. With Presbycusis what is a Metabolic Loss?
    Loss resulting from a defect in the chemical composition of endolymph, because of atrophy in the stria vascularis.
  111. With Presbycusis what is a Mechanical Loss?
    A loss resulting from a change in the stiffness of compliance of the basilar membrane, or fixation of the stapes.
  112. Which poisons have an effect on the inner ear?
    • carbon monoxide
    • lead
    • mercury
    • gold
    • arsenic
    • tobacco 
    • alcohol
  113. What is a Congenital Sensorineural Loss?
    Loss present at birth; either inherited or acquired.
  114. Which syndrome is caused by the excess of Endolymph fluid?
    Meniere's Syndrome
  115. Which condition is caused by the rupture of the stapes footplate or of the annular ring, with a loss of Perilymph Fluid?
    Oval Window Fistula
  116. What is Round Window Fistuala?
    A condition resulting from a direct trauma; either barotrauma(diving/flying), increased Perilymph Pressures.
  117. What is Labyrinthitis?
    An inflammation or infection of the inner ear.
  118. What is a non-Organic hearing loss?
    Occurs when an individual believes they have, or is faking a hearing loss, when there is nothing physically wrong with their hearing.

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