Auditory System And Hearing Loss
Card Set Information
Auditory System And Hearing Loss
IIHIS Unit 1
An incision in the eardrum to allow drainage because of fluid build up?
The Outer portion of the semi-circular canals is filled with what?
The 3 semi-circular canals?
The tight tissue on the lower 4/5th of the tympanic membrane?
What are the names of the three tapering tubes found in the sections of the cochlea?
The outward projection or bump on the front of the ear that is suspended over the ear canal?
Triangular shaped tube in the cochlea that contains the auditory nerve endings?
What is Tympanosclerosis?
White, Chalky Calcium deposits caused by a degeneration of tissue
Perilymph fluid protects this?
The Semi-Circular canals detect?
Rotational movement in any direction for balance and equilibrium
The Inner raised area or rim of the Pinna
The 2 Part outer wall of the Scala Media is made up of?
Seperates the Scala Media from the Scala Tympani?
Holes/Spots on the tympanic membrane that have healed and reflect light?
Neurons that transmit from the cochlea to the brain?
The vestibular and cochlear nerves combine to become?
Auditory Nerves (VIII Cranial Nerve)
What is the Tensor Tympani?
Muscle that attaches to the handle of the malleus
Tiny wax producing hairs in the canal
What is the technical name of the ear canal?
External Auditory Meatus
What is a prolapsed canal?
Breakdown or sag of tissue around the canal
Collapse of the canal
Wax producing glands?
The irregularly shaped space inside the oval window behind the stapes footplate?
What is otitis media?
Presence of fluid in the middle ear
Causes a conductive loss
What is a Conductive Hearing Loss?
Loss do to something wrong with the outer or middle ear
Possibly able to fix
What is the Reissmers Membrane?
Separates the scala media from the scala vestibuli
3 main types of Hearing loss?
Removal of diseased mastoid cells?
The technical name of the ear wax?
3 parts of the inner ear?
To temporarily correct ossicular fixation this surgery manipulates the stapes footplate to eliminate the conductive component to hearing loss?
The vestibule contains two membranous sacs?
What is Otosclerosis?
Disease which causes spongy changes in the bony capsule surrounding the inner ear
The inner ear contains 2 fluids?
The ossification of the ligaments of the ossicular chain?
The Entrance into the Ear Canal?
The technical name for the ear drum?
What provides a direct connection from the outside air to enter the middle ear through the Eustachian tube?
What are the 3 bones of the ossicles?
Three surgical techniques used to treat cases of otosclerosis?
Surgery that uses a plastic or steel strut to replace the completely removed stapes?
What is Supportive Otitis Media?
Fluid build up in the middle ear cause by bacteria
What is the stapedius Muscle?
Attaches to the neck of the stapes
What is Ossicular Discontinuity?
Damage to the ossicles that causes them to no longer articulate properly
Lever action is reduced or eliminated
The involuntary response of the Tensor Tympani and Stapedius Muscles to stiffen or move out of alignment in response to loud sound?
How does the middle ear act as a transformer?
The ossicular chain acting as a lever increases the sound pressure delivered to the oval window.
What is aero-otitis media, or barotrauma?
Eustachian doesn't open properly
The 3 layers of the tympanic membrane
Near the top of the Pinna between the Heliz and the Anti-helix?
The outer edge or fold of the Pinna?
The lower tip of the ear?
Bulk of the rear outer curved area?
This part of the Helix overlaps the Anti-helix at the upper front edge?
Surgery in which the ear drum and most of the ossicles were removed and a tiny window is made through the bony wall. A flap of skin placed over the window?
Type of energy transmitted by the cochlear nerve?
Spiral Ganglion unite like a cable forming this?
Groups of nerves that combine in the modiolus of the cochlea?
Removal of diseased ossicular chain and mastoid cells?
Tumor occurring in the middle ear?
Where the Scala Vestibuli and the Scala Tympani come together?
Holds that below 1000Hz that Place Theory is correct. Above 1000Hz nerve fibers fire in volleys
The Volley Theory?
There are sequences of firing which allow for the transmission of neural energy from the inner ear to the brain.
The Place Theory?
There are specific places in the cochlea, the pathways to the brain and the temporal lobe for specific frequencies.
The base of the cochlea, nearest to the oval window responds to which frequencies?
The two layers in the cochlea that contain perilymph fluid?
The gelatinous structure that attaches tot he supporting cells a the inner side?
What is the bony prominence that seperates the oval and round windows forming the wall of the cochlea?
The upper fifth of the tympanic membrane that is loose?
When a collection of nerve fibers leave the cochlea and become part of the central nervous system is called?
Nerve Fibers combine here forming Spiral Ganglion in the Cochlea?
What is the domed end of the Scala Media?
What is an inflammation of the walls of the external auditory canal called?
The front end of each semi-circular canal, closet to the middle ear, enlarges to form?
When the fluid remains trapped in the middle ear after an infection and blocks the Eustachian tube?
Serous Otitis Media or Middle Ear Effusion
The top of the Malleus articulates with the top of the Incus; the bottom of the Incus meets the head of the Stapes is called?
The bottom rim of the ear between the Tragus and the Antitragus?
How does the Middle Ear act as a transducer?
Changes acoustic energy from the ear drum to mechanical energy in the ossicular chain
Neurons that transmit from the brain to the cochlea?
What does the Annular Ligament do?
Holds the footplate of the stapes in the Oval Window
What is the Round Window?
Membrane covered opening in the bone separating the middle and inner ear?
What is Mixed Hearing Loss?
Combination of Conductive (Physical) and Sensorinueral (Nerve) Loss.
What part runs from the lower part of the middle ear cavity to the upper part of the throat?
The Eustachian Tube
What does the Oval Window separate?
Opening in the bone between the air filled middle ear and the fluid filled inner ear.
What separates the cochlea into 3 parts?
Osseous Spiral Lamina
The endings of the Vestibular Nerve, which becomes a branch of the Auditory Nerve are contained where?
What is the name of the ring that holds the ear drum in place?
What is the normal color of the tympanic membrane?
Oil producing glands?
What is the ossicular chain?
The linkage of the malleus, incus, and the stapes suspended by ligaments.
What is Sensorineural Hearing Loss?
Occurs inside the cochlea
Can Not be repaired
What are the 3 major parts of the ear?
How does the inner ear act as a transducer?
The stapes footplate changes mechanical energy from the ossicular chain to hydraulic energy
The small hollow or bowl leading directly into the ear canal?
Ringing in the ears, usually a low frequency sound?
What is the name of the fleshy part that protrudes from the side of the head?
The bump or projection on the back part of the inner rim?
What is a tympanoplasty?
Replacing the ossicular chain with prothesis and grafts skin over the ear drum.
What are the two purposes of the Tensor Tympaini and Stapedius Muscles?
To keep the bone linkages taut so that it can respond appropriately to vibrations
Prevent extreme motions of the linkage which might result in damage from very loud sounds
Auditory and Facial Nerves leave the Modialus through an opening in the bone called?
Internal Auditory Meatus
What characteristic is associated with the Organic Loss of Recruitment
A small increase in sound intensity results in a rapid increase in apparent loudness.
A hallucination of movement, arising from problems within the vestibular portion of the inner ear
Organic Loss caused by trauma to the middle ear by exposure to a single very loud sound, explosion, or high noise levels for a long time?
Organic Loss resulting from exposure to high noise levels?
A reversible drop in hearing thresholds from noise exposure?
Temporary Threshold Shift (TTS)
What is a Permanent Threshold Shift (PTS)?
Loss caused by non treated Temporary Threshold Shift caused my noise exposure.
What is Presbycusis?
Hearing loss resulting from, or associated with increasing age.
What are the 4 types of Presbycusis?
With Presbycusis what is a Sensory Loss?
Loss involving the Hair Cells; patients exhibit an abrupt high frequency loss.
With Presbycusis what is a Central Loss?
Mild loss, with gradual loss in the high frequencies, usually from ganglion cell loss.
What is Phonemic Regression?
Poor word discrimination
With Presbycusis what is a Metabolic Loss?
Loss resulting from a defect in the chemical composition of endolymph, because of atrophy in the stria vascularis.
With Presbycusis what is a Mechanical Loss?
A loss resulting from a change in the stiffness of compliance of the basilar membrane, or fixation of the stapes.
Which poisons have an effect on the inner ear?
What is a Congenital Sensorineural Loss?
Loss present at birth; either inherited or acquired.
Which syndrome is caused by the excess of Endolymph fluid?
Which condition is caused by the rupture of the stapes footplate or of the annular ring, with a loss of Perilymph Fluid?
Oval Window Fistula
What is Round Window Fistuala?
A condition resulting from a direct trauma; either barotrauma(diving/flying), increased Perilymph Pressures.
What is Labyrinthitis?
An inflammation or infection of the inner ear.
What is a non-Organic hearing loss?
Occurs when an individual believes they have, or is faking a hearing loss, when there is nothing physically wrong with their hearing.