Neurochemistry Chapter 1

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Neurochemistry Chapter 1
2014-01-30 20:33:42
Substance Abuse Counseling

Substance Abuse Counseling: Neurochemistry
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  1. All psychoactive drugs either directly or indirectly affect which neurotransmitter?
  2. excitatory
    • Neurotransmitters that open the gate, thus increasing cell firings, are
    • called
  3. inhibitory
    Those that close the gate and reduce cell firings are called
  4. Receptor Sites
    Where neurotransmitters combine or attach
  5. Affinity
    Strength of attraction the bind- in regards to a receptor site
  6. Specificity
    Goodness of fit with the site- in regards to a receptor site
  7. Pharmacogenomics
    How the drugs, body (brain) and genes interact
  8. Pharmacokinetics
    What the body does to the drug
  9. Pharmacodynamics
    What the drug does to the brain/body
  10. Uppers (Stimulants)
    • Cocaine
    • Amphetamines
    • Caffeine
    • Nicotine
  11. Downers (Depressants)
    • Opiates/Opiods
    • Sedatives- Hypnotics
    • Alcohol
  12. All Arounders (Psychedelics)
    • LSD
    • Mescaline
    • Marijuana
  13. What is tolerance?
    Effect of a given does diminishes over time

    Higher and more frequent doses are needed to maintain the same effect
  14. Cross Tolerance
  15. Dependence
    Abrupt discontinuation of psychoactive drug results in physical and/or psychological impairment which is relieved by the same or similar drug
  16. Cross Dependence
    Ability of one drug to suppress withdrawal symptoms of a different drug
  17. SET
    All of those specific and individual factors about a person which mat effect the response to a drug. 

    Ex: personality, expectations, motivation state of health, ect
  18. L.A.D.M.E

    AKA what the body does to the drug
    • Liberation
    • Absorption
    • Distribution
    • Metabolism
    • Elimination
  19. Liberation
    Disintegration (the process of coming to pieces ) of dosage form or dissolution of particles
  20. Absorption
    • Different methods
    • inhaled
    • Intravenous
    • Intranasal
    • Buccal
    • Oral
    • Cutaneous
  21. Inhalation
    Is the fastest method because the lugs have such a large surface area

    The heart only has to beat once for some of the drug to reach the brain. (High within 7-10 Seconds)
  22. Intravanous
    More intense high even thought it takes a few seconds loner to reach the brain
  23. Buccal
    Holding in the mouth

    Ex: Nicotine
  24. Oral
    • Swallowing- has to reach the intestine 
    • Takes 10-30 minutes to get high
  25. Cutaneous
    • On the skin
    • Takes hours to get high
  26. What is the target of the psychoactive drug?
    The brain
  27. Fat Soluble
    Psychoactive drugs are fat soluble by definition
  28. Blood Brain Barrier
    Specialized cells help to create a fatty barrier of water-soluble substance. 

    Brain gets extra protection 

    Psychoactive drugs are lipid-soluble and can cross easily
  29. The Reward System of the Brain
    • Part most responsible for addiction 
    • Nucleus Accumbens
    • Hypothalamus
    • Amygdala
    • Hippocampus
    • Ventral Tegmental Area
  30. Metabolism
    Enzymes in the liver chemically alter the drug before it is ultimately eliminated fro the body
  31. Half-Life
    The length of time it takes for drug's concentration in the blood to be reduce by 50%