pharmacology exam 1

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  1. What is Pharmacology?
    • study of medicine
    • drugs and what type of change drug does to the body
  2. what is pharmacotherapy?
    when we use drugs to treat or prevent disease
  3. what is a drug?
    • a chemical agent capable of producing biologic responses within the body
    • Desired=Therapeutic
    • Undesirable= Adverse
  4. Pharmacologic Classification
    • describes the mechanism of action
    • the way it works at a molecular, tissue, body system levels.
    •  examples:  Diuretic, Calcium Blocker
  5. Therapeutic Classification
    • Describes what is being treated
    • organized based on the therapy they provide.
    • examples: antifungal, anticoaglant
  6. What are the different Drug names
    • Chemical Name- what chemical it is made from
    • Generic Name-name assigned by US Adoptive name council, easier the remember than chemical name
    • Brand Name- Name the company givens the medication
  7. what is bioavailability
    • how well or easily a med reaches target cells and produce its effect.
    • Difference in generic and brand drug, used when deciding which one to prescribe. Both meds treat the same thing but because they are compounded/made different one may take longer to work
  8. What is US Pharmacopeia?
    • recipe book for drugs
    • Formulary of pharmaceutical products
    • "National Formulary"
    • established 1975
  9. What does the FDA do?
    • Established 1906 (control how new meds come to market)
    • protects the public health safety
    • monitors human and animal drugs, biological products, cosmetics, medical devices, and products that emit radiation.
    • Advanced in public health by helping speed innovations that make meds more effective, safe, and more affordable.
    • Help public get accurate, scientific info they need
  10. Drug Approval
    • very lengthy process (4 Phases)
    • preclinical research and investigation
    • Clinical Trial Phase I, II, III
    • Drug Application to FDA
    • Post Market Surveillance
  11. what happens during Phase I, the preclinical Investigation of developing a new drug
    • average 1-3 years
    • Initial synthesis and animal testing
  12. Phase II of developing new drug
    • Clinical Investigation
    • Clinical Trials I, II, III

    Average 5 years
  13. Phase III of developing new drug
    • Review of New Drug Application (NDA)
    • Average 24 months
  14. Phase IV of developing new drug
    • Post MArket Studies/Surveillance
    • Adverse reaction reporting
    • Surveys/Sampling and testing
    • Inspections by FDA
  15. Drug Schedules
    • scheduled drugs have higher risk for abuse so they are restricted
    • must have DEA # to prescribe
  16. Drug schedules I
    • highest abuse potential
    • Heroin, LSD, Marijuana
  17. Schedule II Drug
    • high risk of abuse potential
    • hydromorphin, methadone, cocaine, penobarbital, fentaynl
  18. Schedule III Drugs
    • Moderate Risk for abuse
    • combination products containing less than 15mg hydrocodone, buprenorphine
  19. Schedule IV Drugs
    • Lower risk for abuse
    • Alprazolam, clonzapam
  20. Schedule V Drugs
    • Lowest risk for abuse
    • Cough suppressant containing not more than 200mg codeine
  21. what is teratogenic risk
    a substance that has the potential to cause harm to unborn child if taken while pregnant

    A unlikely-X animal and human studies show med causes birth defects
  22. what is drug compliance
    taking the med as prescribed by physician
  23. top reasons for noncompliance
    • forgetting
    • Money
    • Adverse Effects
    • Pt adjusts
  24. Drug Orders
    Name 5
    • S.T.A.T
    • PRN
    • Single
    • Routine
    • Standing
  25. 5 levels of Teratogenic Risk
    • A) studies fail to show risk
    • B) animals studies have not shown risk {benefit > risk}
    • C) Risks = Benefits
    • D) Risks > Benefits
    • X) Will Def Cause Defects
  26. what are the 5 rights of administration?
    • Please Read The Med Directions??
    • Patient
    • Route
    • Time
    • Medication
    • Dose
  27. What are the routes of Administration?
    • 7
    • Sublingual/Buccal
    • PO
    • Parental (injection)
    • Topical
    • Rectal
    • Vaginal
    • Opthalmic/Otic/Intranasal
  28. PO Administration
    • delivered to the GI Tract
    • Most Common and Convenient
    • Absorbed into systemic circulation by surfaces of the stomach and small intestines
  29. Sublingual/Buccal Administration
    • Keep in mouth against absorpsurfaces of the check and tongue
    • Advantages: effective because it absorbs quickly into the vascular tissue
    • Disadvantages: nurse must watch to make sure pt leaves in mouth until dissolves and doesn't swallow
  30. Opthalmic
    • treats eye
    • treats ear
    • treats nasal cavity,
  31. Topical administration
    • applied to skin or mucous membrane
    • local and systemic effect
  32. rectal administration
    • slow but steady absorption
    • good for comatose pt or pt with N/V
  33. Parental Administration
    • TB, Allergy testing, insulin, heparin
    • Rapid Absorption, easily accessible
    • skips first pass metabolism
  34. Parental Administration
    • Vaccines, Narcotics, Abx
    • more rapid onset, can use larger amounts than SQ
  35. Parenteral Administration
    • Injected directly in the bloodstream for rapid onset of action
    • most dangerous method
    • large volumes
    • intermittent infusions
    • bolus
  36. what is intermittent infusion?
    • piggyback
    • small amount of IV solution arranged in tandem with primary large volume infusion
  37. what is IV bolus?
    • Push
    • concentrated dose delivered directly into the circulation via syringe thru port or shot to vein
  38. what is pharmacokinetics?
    • the study of drug movement through the body
    • Absorption
    • Distribution
    • Metabolism
    • Excretion
  39. Absorption
    • process by which molecules move from site of administration to the bloodstream
    • IV meds bypass absorption
    • Factors are: route of admin, drug formulation, Environment, Blood Flow, surface area
  40. Distribution
    • the transport of pharmacologic agents throughout the body after they are absorbed
    • they may undergo chemical or physical change
    • Factors are: Blood Flow, Solubility, Affinity, Tissue Storage, Protein Binding, Barriers
  41. Factors of distribution
    • Blood Flow
    • Solubility (coated?)
    • Affinity (does it like to go where it is suppose to go)
    • Tissue Storage (if overloaded med will go other places)
    • Protein Binding
    • Barrier (Blood Bran Barrier)
  42. Metabolism
    when the body converts drug to make it easier to remove
  43. what are Prodrugs?
    drugs that become more affective during metabolism
  44. Metabolism takes place...
    • primary site is the liver
    • some occurs in renal and gi tracts
  45. what is the first pass effect?
    • when the med orally enters the Hepatic Portal almost as soon as given
    • Some drugs are completely metabolized to an inactive form before they ever reach the general circulation
    • (Give Different Route)
  46. you must know how a drug is ________ so you know how to ________ the drug
    • metabolized
    • administer
  47. Excretion
    • how a med is removed from the body
    • primary site of excretion is the kidney
  48. What is therapeutic response?
    is what we are treating responding?
  49. therapeutic range
    • the plasma drug concentration between the minimum effect and toxic concentration
    • you don't want to minimum or toxic must keep in the range
  50. half-Life
    length of tie that is takes for the plasma concentration to be decreased by 1/2
  51. Pharmacodynamics
    refers to how a medicine changes the body
  52. therapeutic index
    the ratio of a drugs lethal dose to its effective dose
  53. potency
    a drug that is more potent will produce a therapeutic effect at a lower dose, compared with another drug from the same class
  54. efficacy
    • another method to compare drugs
    • the magnitude of maximal response that can be produced by a particular drug
  55. Receptors
    A cellular macromolecule to which a medication binds in order to initiate its effects
  56. medication errors
    any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the health care professional, patient or consumer
  57. common medication errors
    • usually human error
    • name confusion
    • dose miscalculation
    • misinterpretation of orders
    • poor or incorrect labeling
    • Poor Communication
  58. Nursing Process
    • ADPIE
    • Assessing
    • Diagnosing
    • Planning
    • Implementing
    • Evaluating
  59. strategies to reduce medication errors
    • nursing process
    • 5 rights
    • double check
Card Set
pharmacology exam 1
introduction to Pharmacology
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