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2014-01-31 00:20:04
Brain structures

Structures of the brain
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  1. Central Nervous system (CNS)
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  2. Branches of Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    Somatic and Autonomic
  3. Peripheral Nervous system
    Everything outside of CNS
  4. Two main parts of the nervous system
    CNS and PNS
  5. Function of sympathetic nervous system
    Increase HR, Increase Respiration, Fight and flight
  6. Function of parasympathetic system
    Decrease HR, slow respiration, rest and digest
  7. Autonomic Nervous system
    Part of PNS and Composed of Sympathetic and parasympathetic and it is not under conscious control. Such as Breathing and body temperature.
  8. Somatic Nervous system
    Part of PNS and involves movement under conscious control
  9. Cerebrum
    Also known as Forebrain ( Telencephalon and Diencephalon) Top part of the brain
  10. Brain stem
    Composed of midbrain pons and medulla oblongata. It contains lots of nuclei that control respiration, body temperature. Serves also as tract for large fibers to pass through it.
  11. Cerebellum
    Also known as the little brain and contains the cerebral cortex and nuclei. Important functions such as playing piano and fine motor movements.
  12. Spinal Cord
    Part of the CNS and is composed of dorsal, lateral, and ventral columns
  13. Frontal lobe
    Top and front portion of the brain that is involved in long term memory, planning and strategizing.
  14. Parietal lobe
    Somatosensory processing from the entire body and involved with motor control to some extent
  15. Broca (area)
    Part of the frontal lobe involved in speech and long term planning
  16. Wernikis Area
    Part of the parietal lobe which is involved in understanding spoken word.
  17. Sulci
    Grooves in the brain
  18. Central Sulcus
    Separates frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
  19. Lateral fissure
    Demarcates or defines temporal lobe
  20. Gyri
    Peaks and hill, and increase the SA of the brain Gyri (1/3 SA), Sulci 2/3 of SA
  21. Occipital lobe
    Visual processing contains the visual cortex
  22. Temporal lobe
    Involved in memory processing, emotional behaviors, and auditory processing.
  23. Longitudinal Fissure
    Splits brain into left and right hemisphere
  24. Precentral gyrus
    Importaitn for motor control
  25. Postcentral gyrus
    Receives sensory information from body for processing.
  26. Left hemisphere
    Dominnat in mathematics, logic and language
  27. Right hemisphere
    Dominant in mapping special abilities, music face, recognition.
  28. Gray matter
    Cell bodies of the neurons mainly found on the outer layer of the brain
  29. White matter
    Mylenated nerve fibers (makes up the greatest part of the brain)
  30. Diencephalon
    It means through the brain and it contains the Thalamus and hypothalamus
  31. Thalamus
    Relay/sorting station for sensory information.
  32. Lateral Geniculate nucleus
    Part of the thalamus involved in processing information from the from the eyes to the visual cortex fo the occipital lobe.
  33. Medial Geniculate
    Part of the thalamus Receives information from the ears and relays over to the temporal lobe
  34. Hypothalamus
    Lies beneath thalamus and it is important in basic subconscious functions for instance when you get hungry it will drive you to go find food. Also controls the autonomic nervous system (regulating body temperature, circadian rhythm, expression of emotions.
  35. Hippocampus
    • Semantic memory (memory of meanings, and understanding concept based knowledge)
    • Important in learning memory.
  36. Amygdala
    Emotion and congestive memory, traumatic memory formation.
  37. Striatum
    Composed of lentiform nucleus, caudate nucleus, and putamen…and its involved in planning and organizing voluntary movement.
  38. Corpus Striatum
    Composed of Lentiform nucleus and caudate nucleus and it’s important in organizing voluntary movement.
  39. Basal Nuclei
    Composed of Corpus Striatum, substantia nigra, and subthalmic nuclei (controls planning of voluntary movement).
  40. Corpus collasom
    Connects the right and left hemisphere of the brain and allows them to communicate with one another.
  41. Pituitary gland
    Known as the master gland that is controlled by the hypothalamus
  42. Epithalmus
    Composed of pineal body and habenular
  43. Pineal body
    Controls diurnal cycle (sleep cycle) and onset of puberty
  44. Habenular
    Emotional responses to smell.
  45. Inter thalamic adesion
    Lies in between thalamus and hypothalamus. It allows the right half of the thalamus to talk to the left half of the thalamus.
  46. What are the components of Diencephalon?
    Thalmus, Epithalamus( Pineal body, harbenuar), inter thalamic adesion, pituitary gland
  47. Ventroposterior Nucleous
    Nuclei of the thalamus that is involved in somatosensory, located on the belly side back of thalamus. It receives information from body and sends it to cerebrum
  48. Preoptic area
    Located in hypothalamus The preoptic area is responsible for thermoregulation and receives nervous stimulation from thermoreceptors in the skin, mucous membranes, and hypothalamus itself.
  49. Anterior Nucleus
    Located in hypothalamus Regulation of body temperature, and constriction and dilation of blood vessels
  50. Supraoptic nucleus
    Located in hypothalamus Involved in water balance and contains osmo receptors
  51. Suprachiasmatic nucleus
    Located in hypothalamus Regulates sleep and wake cycles
  52. Optic Chiasm
    Located in hypothalamus is the part of the brain where the optic nerves (CN II) partially cross
  53. paraventricular nucleus
    Located in hypothalamus playing essential roles in controlling stress, metabolism, growth, reproduction, immune and other more traditional autonomic functions (gastrointestinal, renal and cardiovascular).
  54. Lateral Area (hypothalamus)
    Located in hypothalamus, and it’s the Feeding Center
  55. Dorsomedial nucleus
    Located in hypothalamus, and t is involved in feeding, drinking, body-weight regulation and circadian activity
  56. Posterior nucleus
    Located in hypothalamus Shivering
  57. Mammillary body
    Located in hypothalamus and involved in emotional response to smell.
  58. Ventromedial Nucleus
    Located in hypothalamus and inhibits feeding.
  59. Supperior colliculus
    Part of mid brain involved in visual reflexes
  60. Inferior colliculus
    Part of midbrain involved in auditory reflexes
  61. PONS
    Within pons are sleep and respitory centers, ascending and escending fiver track between cerebrum and cerebellum and cranial nuclei (V-IX)
  62. Olive
    Part of midbrain involved in sound modulation from inner ear
  63. Pyramid
    Ascending and descending tracts
  64. Pyramidal decussation
    Crossing of motor fiber involved in voluntary movement.
  65. Medulla oblongata
    Part of midbrain involved in respiration, heart rate, BP, vomiting, coughing, sneezing and cranial nuclei (IX-XII)
  66. Spinal leminscus
    Nerve fibers that are going up carrying sensory information through the midbrain
  67. Tectum
    Part of the midbrain that consist of four colliculi (the collective term for them is Corpora quadrigemina)
  68. Tegmentum
    Part of the midbrain that contains the red nucleus and substanita nigra
  69. Substantia Nigra
    Part of the midbrain that is responsible for production of Dopamine as a the neurotransmitter