G. Chem 1

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Author:
napoleon
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25942
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G. Chem 1
Updated:
2010-07-15 16:11:05
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Chem
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G. Chem Class 1
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  1. Cellular Respiration Eq
    • C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ---> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
    • L.R.

    Limiting Reagent: (used up 1st in rxn)/(least amt)
  2. Rules for STOICH

    (bal & setting up eq basis of chem)
    • 1) Set up Chem-Eq
    • 2) Balance Eq
    • 3) Convert amts to moles
    • 4) Find limiting reagents (use ratios)
    • 5) STOICH IT! (use eq)
    • 6) Convert to desire units

    • always keep in mind ----> ALWAYS USE MOL
    • ALWAYS KEEP RATIOS IN MIND!
  3. Avogadro's number:
    6.022 x 1023

    (how many parts/ molec/ atoms per mole)
  4. Glucose:
    C6H12O6
  5. Atoms: (3 parts)
    single unit of elements

    • 1) neutron - 1 amu 0 charge isotopes
    • 2) electron - 0 amu -1 charge charge
    • 3) proton - 1 amu +1 charge identity
  6. isotopes:
    diff # neutrons
  7. Atomic # (z):
    # protons
  8. Atomic mass (A) =
    protons + neutrons
  9. Rules for QUANTUM #
    • 1) n = shell # (1, 2, 3)
    • 2) l = subshell (0, 1, 2... n-1)
    • s p d
    • 3) Ml = orbital #
    • s 0 (0)
    • p 1 (-1, 0. 1)
    • d 2 (-2, -1, 0, 1, 2)
    • 4) Ms = spin # (+1/2, -1/2)

    • --> 1. e- fill lowest to highest E
    • --> 2. e- fill singly b4 pairing
  10. Anomalies:

    Cr
    Cu
    • (24e) Cr: [Ar] 4s2 3d4
    • (29e) Cu: [Ar] 4s2 3d9

    • instead you want
    • Cr: [Ar] 4s1 3d5
    • Cu: [Ar] 4s1 3d10
  11. Radioactive Decay Story...
    [story --> rent a boat, says can only hold 10 pep, having a party add more pep, boat sinks can't hold, have to push pep off]
  12. Radioactive Decay
    • nucleus:
    • STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE ---> have to counteract the repulsive forces of protons- when SNF can't cope (big atoms/molec)... radioactive decay(get rid of protons)
  13. 3 situations of radioactive decay:
    • 1) high p:n ratio
    • 2) high n:p ratio
    • 3) too many p + n
  14. α - decay
    "helium released"
  15. β- decay
    "neutron changes to proton"
  16. β+ decay
    "proton changes to neutron"

    (commonly called positron emission)
  17. electron capture:
    "electron into nucleus"
  18. visible light spectrum

    ⎮-----⎮-----⎮---R--------V---⎮-----⎮ -----⎮
    radio -- microwave -- infrar red --- R-----V --- UV --- XRay --- gamma

    • E-------------->
    • f -------------->
    • <--------------λ
  19. ϒ (gamma) decay
    "excited st going to ground st"
  20. Atomic radius:
    • ↓ PT, ↑ AR (add shell)
    • → PT, ↓ AR (attractive force)
  21. Ionization E:
    (E removing electron)

    • ↓PT, IE↓ (has to counteract attractive force)
    • → PT, IE ↑ (do not want to loose e-)

    [attractive F, don't want to give up, eg Cl]
  22. Electron Affinity:
    • (energy assoc adding electron)
    • [high EA = large -ve E]

    • ↓ PT, EA ↓
    • → PT, EA ↑

    (WHO WANTS E- MORE)

    ex. Cl is closer to nuc & less shell than I)
  23. Electronegativity:
    • ↓ PT, EN ↓
    • → PT, EN ↑

    FONClBrISCH (order of electroneg)

    F > O > N > Cl > Br > I > S > C > H
  24. Acidity:
    • ↓ PT, acidity ↑
    • → PT, acidity ↑

    = strong acid
  25. Intramolecular:
    (w/in molec)

    (chem bonds, chem properties)
  26. Covalent:
    • share electrons e-
  27. Polar:
    • [intramolecular -- covalent]
  28. Coordinate Covalent:
    • [intramolecular -- covalent]
  29. Ionic:
    • [intramolecular]
    • - both stable w/ full valence shells & near each other "electrostatic attraction"
    • - relates to strength (weak bond; don't have to be next to one another)
    • - not shared charge charge reaction
  30. Metallic:
    • [intramolecular]
    • "moving sea of e-"
  31. Network Solids:
    • [intramolecular]
    • ex - diamond
  32. Intermolecular Forces:
    "between molecules"

    • [increase in strength]
    • - Ion-dipole b.
    • - H-bond
    • - Dipole-Dipole
    • - Dipole Induced Dipole
  33. Ion-dipole bond:
  34. H bond:
    • (special dipole-dipole)
    • (1) F, O, N (H attach to)
    • (2) H bond to F, O, N
  35. Dipole-Dipole:
    • "polar"
  36. Dipole Induced Dipole:
  37. Van Der Waals Force (3):
    • (1) H-bond
    • (2) Dipole-Dipole
    • (3) dipole Induced Dipole
  38. Induced Dipole Induced Dipole:
    • "London Dispersion Forces"
    • - dipole moment when charges are not distrib evenly

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