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are all lymph nodes of ________________
Mediastinal Lymph Nodes
Involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes is common in primary lung cancers
List 4 etiologic factors for lung cancers
- atmospheric pollution
- nickel exposure
- previous thorax radiation
- exposure to ether
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
The strongest risk factor for the development of lung cancer continues to be cigarette smoking
briefly explain the situation in which high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy would be an appropriate management for lung cancer.
HDR for brachytherapy for the management of lung cancer is delivered endobronchial. patients who have tumors located in or near the main stems bronchus might benefit from endobronchial HDR brachytherapy
Clubbing of the fingers is one physical symptom of _______________.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Clubbing of the fingers is a symptom of COPD or other diseases of the heart or lungs where there is a decrease blood oxygen level
A patient with a middle lobe posterior lung tumor may be positioned prone to facilitate
easier alignment of off-cord oblique's and boost fields directly posterior.
A posteriorly located lung tumor may be easily treated during the boost portion of radiation therapy by using a single posterior field or posterior oblique fields
Total dose for prophylactic cranial irradiation is typically
Dose for prophylactic radiation to the brain is typically 36-40 Gy
How many lobes does the right lung have?
The histologic type of lung cancer most closely associated with asbestos exposure is
A radiation treatment field with an upper border above both clavicles and lower border approximately 5 cm below the carina, including mediastinal lymphatic's and blocking most of the left lung would likely be
an initial field for treatment of an upper lobe right lung tumor
The proximity of the bronchus to the esophagus and the potential for mediastinal lymphadenopathy may cause a patient with diagnosed lung cancer to experience pain when swallowing food
coughing up blood
Bronchial tumors may begin to break up with persistent coughing and produce bloody sputum.
Patients with lung tumors and/or positive mediastinal disease may experience difficulty breathing
Collapse of the lung
The location or persistence of a lung tumor or chronic obstructive conditions of the lung may lead to collapse of the lung
This type of lung cancer tends to be located near the periphery of the lung
This type of lung cancer tend to be proximal
and involve the hilum.
Will likely grown into the bronchial lumen & cause associated pneumonitis
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
this type of lung cancer is located in the apex of the lung
This type of lung cancer manifest in the lung pleura
This type of lung cancer shows up similar to adenocarcinoma
Large Cell Carcinoma
This histologic type of lung cancer seen in patients wit no history of smoking is
This histologic type is assumed to indicate that there is already distant disease at the time of diagnosis is
Oat Cell Carcinoma
Initial AP/PA fields the lung cancer may require an anterior wedge to:
Compensate for the natural slope of the chest
To verify the histology of a suspected lung cancer a ___________ is helpful
Target Volume delineation for lung tumors may involve cardiac or respiratory gating procedures.
The rationale for this is that lung tumors ____________________________
move with cardiac and respiratory motion
The natural slope of the chest may cause high dose regions in the upper mediastinum.
This area of increased dose may be managed by the use of the ___________________
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