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. What would you like to do?
the study of how people select, interpret, and use information to make judgements and decisions
2 portraits of cognition
(portraits of cognition) Rational: (2)
-individuals engage in careful processing of information about the world
(portraits of cognition) what does the process of rational yield?
an accurate representation of the social world
(portraits of cognition) Biased (2)
-individual-level information processing is dependent on past experience, culture, and emotions
(portraits of cognition) what does the processing of biased yield?
is somewhat skewed representation of the social world
What are schemas?
inferred knowledge structures that organize beliefs about a specific topic (like a person or event)
what are 2 significant things about schemas
-cant be studied directly
-studied indirectly by looking at their effects
schemas) automatic activation (2)
brought to mind unconsciously and without effort
(cognitive effects of schemas) effects on attention (2)
-likely to pay attention to information that fits a pre-existing schema
-forget things that are inconsistent
(cognitive effects of schemas) effects on memory
-likely to remember things that fit our schemas unless they are extremely inconsistent with our schemas
(cognitive effects of schemas) effects on interpretations
-schemas guide our interpretations of events or questions
(cognitive effects of schemas) Inferences
helps us go beyond the information given and make assumptions about things for which we may not have direct evidence
what 2 things do we see through schemas?
-our perceptions and memories actively constructed in the moment
-incoming information is filtered
schemas) how do we see constructions or construals?
as direct representations of reality even though they may differ depending on the schema used to filter information
(which schema) accessibility
the extent to which schema and concepts are at the forefront of people's minds
(which schema) Priming:
the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema trait or concept
what occurs with a self-fulfilling prophecy?
-we have an expectation about what a person is like which influences the way we act towards that person which causes that person to behave consistently with our expectations
what is the consequence of a self-fulfilling prophecy?
our beliefs/schemas become a reality
what occured in rosenthal & jacobson study?
- the students that were placed as bloomers had higher IQs than the other students.
- *perhaps given a preferential treatment
(Shortcuts to judgement) Heuristics:
simple rules for making complex decisions or drawing inferences in a rapid and seemingly effortless manner
(shortcuts to judgement) Availability heuristic
basing judgement on the ease with which you bring something to mind
(shortcuts to judgement) representatives heuristic:
classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case (often stereotypical)
(shortcuts to judgement) Base-rate information:
the actual frequency of something within in the population
(shortcuts to judgement) Anchoring and adjustment Heuristic:
mental shortcut whereby people use a number or value as a starting point andthen adjust insufficiently from this anchor
what is the false-consensus effect?
the tendency to assume that others behave or think as we do to a greater extent than it is actually true
What is automatic processing thinking?
- thinking that is non-conscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless
- *driving a car
what is controlled processing thinking?
- thinking that is conscious,intentional, voluntary, and effortful.
- *can be turned on and off at will
- **takes motivation and effort
(motivated skepticism) X-rays are terminal
-must have been a mix up
-seek out second opinion
(motivated skepticism) X-rays were positive..
-forget about it
when are people more likely to think more during negative or positive circumstances?
what is thought supression?
the attempt to avoid thinking about something we would just as soon forget
what 2 processes are required to thought suppress?
controlled processing) Counterfactual thinking:
mentally changing some aspects of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
Controlled processing) Magical Thinking:
thinking involving assumptions that do not hold up to rational scrutiny
an error in thought can occur when... (2)
-too heavy reliance on heuristics
What does the use of schemas, heuristics etc help us with?
make sense of our social world around us
What would you like to do?
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