Microbiology Chapter 1

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  1. Antony von Leeuwehoek
    • 1. Dutch Textile Merchant
    • 2. Saw "animalcules" in water
  2. Who are the two men accredited with inventing the microscope?
    • Antony von Leeuwehoek
    • Robert Hooke
  3. Robert Hooke
    • 1. Described a "microscopical mushroom" (bread mold)
    • 2. used the word "cells"
  4. When was the microscope invented?
  5. Spontaneous Generation
    The concept that living things arise from non-living matter
  6. Biogenesis
    The concept that life comes from pre-existing life
  7. Francesco Redi
    • 1668
    • demonstrated that maggots on rotting meat came from eggs on the meat, not the meat
  8. What did Francesco Redi's experiment consist of?
    • 3 Jars with meat in them
    • 1 closed, 1 open, and 1 with mesh
  9. Vital Force
  10. John Needham
    • 1749
    • Boiled broth, cooled it, and sealed it
    • supported Spontaneous Generation theory
  11. Father Spallanzani
    • 1776
    • contradicted Needham's results
    • Boiled broth longer and sealed completely while hot
  12. Why was Father Spallanzani's experiment questioned?
    It was thought that boiling destroyed a "vital force"
  13. Louis Pasteur
    • 1895
    • Cotton Plug experiment
    • Swan Neck Flask experiment
  14. What was Louis Pasteur's cotton plug experiment?
    Pasteur proved there were bacteria in the air by filtering air through a cotton plug and looking at it's microbes
  15. What was Louis Pasteur's Swan-Neck flask experiment?
    Boiled brother in Swan-Neck flasks. The broth was still exposed to the air, but no bacteria grew inside
  16. Why were Louis Pasteur's experiments difficult to replicate?
    No one knew of endospores, and the different broths used sometimes had endospores
  17. Endospore
    Heat-resistant bacteria
  18. Father of modern microbiology
    Louis Pasteur
  19. Credited with Biogenesis theory
    Louis Pasteur
  20. John Tyndall
    Proved that certain broths contained heat-resistant bacteria
  21. Ferdinand Cohn
    • German Botanist
    • Discovered endospores
  22. Name 4 applications of Microbiology
    • Food production
    • Biodegradation
    • Commercial Product Production
    • Biotechnology
  23. Name 4 examples of microbiology in Food Production
    • Fermentation of beer
    • Fermentation of dairy products
    • Yeast 
    • Pickling
  24. Bioremediation
    Using bacteria to hasten pollutant decay
  25. Name 3 applications of Microbiology in Biodegradation
    • Degrade PCBs, DDT, and trichlorothylene
    • Clean up oil spills
    • Bioremediation
  26. Name 3 commercial product production applications of microbiolofy
    • Ethanol
    • Insect Toxins
    • Antibiotics
  27. Name an application of microbiolgy in Biotechnology
    Creation of insulin
  28. What is a pathogen?
    Disease-causing Microbes
  29. When was the Golden Age of Microbiology?
    After the theory of Spontaneous Generation was disproved
  30. Germ Theory of Disease
    That germs caused disease
  31. When were most pathogenic bacteria identified?
  32. What do we use Koch's postulates for?
    To prove that certain bacteria cause specific diseases
  33. What is chemotherapy
    Treatment with chemicals
  34. Who developed the first vaccine?
    • Edward Jenner
    • Smallpox
  35. What foods do we pasteurize?
  36. What is an emerging disease? Give examples
    • Newly recognized diseases
    • Swine Flue, SARS, HIV/AIDS
  37. What do emerging diseases continue to arise?
    • Changing of lifestyles
    • closer contact with animals
    • evolution of diseases
    • Pathogens resistant to antibiotics
    • Increased travel
    • weakened immune systems
  38. Beneficial microbes
    Normal Microbiota r normal flora
  39. Name 3 benefits of Normal Microbiota
    • Compete with pathogens and help prevent disease
    • Help development of immune system response
    • Aid in digestions
  40. What are the three domains?
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eucarya
  41. What is a prokaryote?
    1+ Prokaryotic Cell(s)
  42. What causes a rigid cell wall in bacteria?
  43. What is unique about peptidoglycan?
    it is only found in bacteria
  44. How do bacteria multiply?
    Binary Fission
  45. What shapes do Bacteria come in?
    • Rod
    • Spherical
    • Spiral
  46. What is the difference between Archaea and Bacteria?
    Bacteria have peptidoglycan, Archaea do not
  47. What is an extremophile?
    A microbe that can exist in an extreme environment
  48. What is a halophile
    an Archaea that can live in high salt concentration
  49. What is a Thermophile?
    An archaea that can live in very high temperatures
  50. What does Eukaryote mean
    1+ Eukaryotic cells
  51. What is a main difference between Eucarya and Bacteria?
    Eucarya have membrane-bound organelles
  52. Name 4 microbial members of Eucarya
    • Fungi
    • Algae
    • Protozoa
    • Multicellular parasites (helminths)
  53. Which microbial member is photosynthetic
  54. Can Algae be single celled or multicellular?
  55. Can Fungi be single-celled or multicellular?
  56. Where do Fungi get energy from?
    degradation of organic material
  57. Can protozoa be single-celled or multicellular?
  58. What is the Nomenclature for microbes?
    Genus Species
  59. What do viruses contain?
    protein and either RNA or DNA
  60. What are infected living cells?
  61. What are obligate intracellular parasites?
    Parasites that are inactive outside of hosts
  62. What do Viroids contain?
    A single short piece of RNA
  63. What do viroids effect?
  64. What are prions?
    infections proteins that cause neurodegenerative diseases
  65. What is an example of a neurodegenerative disease?
    Mad Cow
  66. What does microscopic mean?
    Can only be seen with a light microscope
  67. What is needed to see bacteria?
    a light microscope
  68. What is needed to see viruses?
    an electron microscope
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Microbiology Chapter 1
2014-02-01 03:50:03
Microbiology Chapter 1
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