Microbiology Chapter 1
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. What would you like to do?
Antony von Leeuwehoek
- 1. Dutch Textile Merchant
- 2. Saw "animalcules" in water
Who are the two men accredited with inventing the microscope?
- Antony von Leeuwehoek
- Robert Hooke
- 1. Described a "microscopical mushroom" (bread mold)
- 2. used the word "cells"
When was the microscope invented?
The concept that living things arise from non-living matter
The concept that life comes from pre-existing life
- demonstrated that maggots on rotting meat came from eggs on the meat, not the meat
What did Francesco Redi's experiment consist of?
- 3 Jars with meat in them
- 1 closed, 1 open, and 1 with mesh
- Boiled broth, cooled it, and sealed it
- supported Spontaneous Generation theory
- contradicted Needham's results
- Boiled broth longer and sealed completely while hot
Why was Father Spallanzani's experiment questioned?
It was thought that boiling destroyed a "vital force"
- Cotton Plug experiment
- Swan Neck Flask experiment
What was Louis Pasteur's cotton plug experiment?
Pasteur proved there were bacteria in the air by filtering air through a cotton plug and looking at it's microbes
What was Louis Pasteur's Swan-Neck flask experiment?
Boiled brother in Swan-Neck flasks. The broth was still exposed to the air, but no bacteria grew inside
Why were Louis Pasteur's experiments difficult to replicate?
No one knew of endospores, and the different broths used sometimes had endospores
Father of modern microbiology
Credited with Biogenesis theory
Proved that certain broths contained heat-resistant bacteria
- German Botanist
- Discovered endospores
Name 4 applications of Microbiology
- Food production
- Commercial Product Production
Name 4 examples of microbiology in Food Production
- Fermentation of beer
- Fermentation of dairy products
Using bacteria to hasten pollutant decay
Name 3 applications of Microbiology in Biodegradation
- Degrade PCBs, DDT, and trichlorothylene
- Clean up oil spills
Name 3 commercial product production applications of microbiolofy
- Insect Toxins
Name an application of microbiolgy in Biotechnology
Creation of insulin
What is a pathogen?
When was the Golden Age of Microbiology?
After the theory of Spontaneous Generation was disproved
Germ Theory of Disease
That germs caused disease
When were most pathogenic bacteria identified?
What do we use Koch's postulates for?
To prove that certain bacteria cause specific diseases
What is chemotherapy
Treatment with chemicals
Who developed the first vaccine?
What foods do we pasteurize?
What is an emerging disease? Give examples
- Newly recognized diseases
- Swine Flue, SARS, HIV/AIDS
What do emerging diseases continue to arise?
- Changing of lifestyles
- closer contact with animals
- evolution of diseases
- Pathogens resistant to antibiotics
- Increased travel
- weakened immune systems
Normal Microbiota r normal flora
Name 3 benefits of Normal Microbiota
- Compete with pathogens and help prevent disease
- Help development of immune system response
- Aid in digestions
What are the three domains?
What is a prokaryote?
1+ Prokaryotic Cell(s)
What causes a rigid cell wall in bacteria?
What is unique about peptidoglycan?
it is only found in bacteria
How do bacteria multiply?
What shapes do Bacteria come in?
What is the difference between Archaea and Bacteria?
Bacteria have peptidoglycan, Archaea do not
What is an extremophile?
A microbe that can exist in an extreme environment
What is a halophile
an Archaea that can live in high salt concentration
What is a Thermophile?
An archaea that can live in very high temperatures
What does Eukaryote mean
1+ Eukaryotic cells
What is a main difference between Eucarya and Bacteria?
Eucarya have membrane-bound organelles
Name 4 microbial members of Eucarya
- Multicellular parasites (helminths)
Which microbial member is photosynthetic
Can Algae be single celled or multicellular?
Can Fungi be single-celled or multicellular?
Where do Fungi get energy from?
degradation of organic material
Can protozoa be single-celled or multicellular?
What is the Nomenclature for microbes?
What do viruses contain?
protein and either RNA or DNA
What are infected living cells?
What are obligate intracellular parasites?
Parasites that are inactive outside of hosts
What do Viroids contain?
A single short piece of RNA
What do viroids effect?
What are prions?
infections proteins that cause neurodegenerative diseases
What is an example of a neurodegenerative disease?
What does microscopic mean?
Can only be seen with a light microscope
What is needed to see bacteria?
a light microscope
What is needed to see viruses?
an electron microscope
What would you like to do?
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