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- Types of Loads..... The weight of the building and any part of the structure that is permanently attached to it?
- Dead Loads.... Concrete, steel, and grass.
Types of Loads...... The weight of occupants, furniture, movable equipment, stored materials and forces of movement?
Live Loads....... People, furniture, materials
A load which is applied to a small or specific area. An HVAC system on a roof is considered a concentrated load.
A load which is applied equally over a wide or large area. A roof would be considered a distributed load as it has multiple anchor points to exterior walls that help disburse its weight?
An impact load is a load in motion caused by vibration, impact or acceleration. An item falling from the ceiling and striking the f loor would be considered an impact load
A load that has been calculated or anticipated by the architect or building engineer?
A load that was not anticipated or planned for when the building was constructed. An example of an undesigned load would be an office building converted into a warehouse These structures were not originally designed to hold the new dead or live loads now occupying it.
The heat generated by all the structural components of a building and its contents when it is burning. This heat is measured in British Thermal Units or BTU’s?
A load that passes through the center of mass of the supporting element and is perpendicular to the cross section?
– A load that is perpendicular to the cross section of the supporting element and does not pass through the center of mass
A load that is parallel to the cross section of the supporting member and does not pass through the long axis. Twisting is a result from this type of load?
Forces.... Causes the shortening of a material?
Forces....... Causes the elongation of a material?
Forces....... Causes a material to tear or slide apart?
Deformation..... When a material returns to its original shape?
Deformation.......... When a material does not return to its original shape?
Deformation........ When a material displays large amounts of deformation before failure?
Deformation......... When a material shows little or no deformation before failure?
What is one of the oldest building materials known to man?
Stone.......... it was often laid or set without a bonding agent, known as drystacking.
Brick and concrete block are the most common types of?
Masonry is commonly used for the walls of buildings, retaining walls and monuments
What is the weakest link in masonry construction and the cause for failures?
Mortar, is used to bind the brick or blocks together and is comprised of lime, sand and water
Often masonry construction is coated with a masonry-based mortar, called?
(Parging), to improve a building’s appearance, Figure 8-8. Unlike stucco, parging is trowelled directly onto the surface of the masonry brick or block and creates a smooth surface for painting and other cosmetic improvements
Note: The hazard of parging to firefighters is that it can hide cracks or other imperfections
The re-bar has been placed under tension prior to the concrete being poured, then the tension is slowly released once the concrete has cured to achieve compression?
The re-bar or steel cabling is placed within a protective sleve and concrete is poured and cured around it. The re-bar is then tensioned, secured with an anchor and released to achieve compression
In the modern construction industry, steel typically comes in the form of?
I-beams, H-Columns, and re-bar
As a general rule, a steel when exposed to heat?
a steel beam will expand 1% of it’s length incrementally for every 1000 degrees of heat it is exposed to
Most wood used in the construction industry are?
Douglas fir, pine, or redwood
What consists of thin plies of wood that are glued together to form wood panels, most commonly found in 4’x 8’ sheets?
What is made by reusing wood chips, f lakes, sawdust and other debris left behind after milling?
Note: OSB and Plywood are dangerous to firefighters because of their high glue, paraffin and wood flake content. This type of wood will quickly fail under heat and fire conditions
Any structural component that transmits a compressive force or axial load. They may stand alone or be integrated into a wall to support beams or any other vertical load. What is it?
Horizontal wood members that are placed between studs to stop the spread of fire vertically through the wall?
What are the vertical members of a wall and are typically spaced 12, 16, or 24 inches apart?
What are the is the top horizontal member of a wall
Whats is the is the horizontal member over a window or door?
what is the is the horizontal member below a window?
What are the vertical studs that are found below a sill or above a header?
What type walls where both sides are contained within the building? They can be either load bearing or non-load bearing and do not contain insulation?
What type of walls have one side exposed to the outside and are typically load bearing and contain insulation?
What type of wall supports and separates two adjacent structures and may be either load bearing or nonload bearing and typically found in apartment or condominium complexes wherein the wall is common to both structures?
What type of wall that divides a building into separate areas and is designed to withstand fire exposure?
What type of wall is an exterior, non-load bearing wall more than one story in height and supported by the frame of the structure?
Note: commonly found on the exterior of many high rise and commercial structures in the form of large glass panels
What is A beam that supports other beams?
What is A beam that is supported at two points near its end?
What is A beam that is supported in three or more places?
What is A series of wood beams placed perpendicular to other beams or trusses to support large area roofs and decking?
What are Horizontal supporting members that run from wall to wall, wall to beam, or beam to beam to support a ceiling, roof or floor?
What is A horizontal beam at the ridge of a roof to which the rafters are attached?
What is one of a series of sloped structural members (beams), that extend from the ridge or hip to the downslope perimeter or eave, designed to support the roof deck and its associated loads?
A beam that spans an opening over a doorway or window ?(Also referred to as a “header")
Panelized roofs do not have a space between the ceiling and the underside of the roof and consist of four main components
What chord is the top horizontal member of the truss and is in the state of compression when loaded?
What chord is the bottom horizontal member of the truss and is in the state of tension when loaded?
Note: In some truss designs, the bottom chord is not anchored to the exterior or load bearing wall.
What is the diagonal cross braces that create a triangular pattern between the top and bottom chords?
Note: The web components of a truss can be either wood or metal.
What are thin steel plates with multiple steel prongs that penetrate into the wood, approximately 3/8”, to fasten the wood truss joints? Spans of up to 55 feet can be found constructed of 2 x 4 wood trusses using gusset plates?
WhaWhat type of ceilings pose a real danger to firefighters?
Suspended ceilings are most commonly known as “drop down” ceilings"
Why? During a fire and extreme heat, the metal wires suspending the ceiling tiles will fail to maintain their integrity and drop down, hanging freely from the plenum space. These dangling wires create an entanglement problem and must be cut to free a firef ighter.
Their structural members are made of non-combustible or limited combustible materials, The code requires a rating of a minimum of 4 hours of fire resistance for all stairwells, bearing walls, elevator shafts, and columns. (What type is this?)
- Type I – Fire Resistive
- Note: Type I fire resistive construction is designed to confine fire and its by-products to a given location
What structures are constructed using a steel framework with exterior walls constructed of metal or concrete block? Also have distinguishing characteristic is that steel members are not required to be coated with spray on fire-proofing insulation, making them prone to failure or collapse under fire conditions.
Type II – Non-Combustible/Limited Combustible
What construction, also called “brick-and-joist,” has exterior walls of masonry with wood floors and wood roof?
- Type III – Ordinary Construction
- Note: This construction method was used to build many of the public, commercial, and multiple unit dwellings throughout the country. These buildings are commonly found in the Gaslamp District of San Diego
What type of structures are constructed of large dimensional wood and contain a heavy fire load due to the size of the structural timbers and are rarely used today other than churches and some factories?
Type IV – Heavy Timber
What type of structures have interior and exterior structural members such as walls, floors, roofs, and other supports made completely or partially of small dimension wood and other combustible materials?
Type V – Wood Frame Construction
Note: Rapid fire spread can be encountered in older Type V structures that utilize balloon construction due to the lack of fire stops between the studs in the walls
Signs of Potential Collapse
- Smoke or water seeping through cracks in walls, f loors or roof.
- • Creaking or cracking noises.
- • Excessive water in the building and/or lack of proper drainage.
- • Bowing or bulging walls.
- • Sagging or spongy roof, ceiling, or walls.
- • Heavy fire impingement to any exposed structural members.
- • Interior collapse or any partial collapse of the structure.
- • Visible spalling.
- • Deterioration of mortar joints and masonry.
What is an area surrounding the structure of at least 1 ½ times the building height should be kept clear of personnel, equipment, and apparatus ?
This area is considered the collapse zone
What are some general guidelines can be followed to help the firefighter in determining when it is the right time to exit the structure?
- The lighter the structural element, the faster it comes down.
- • The heavier the imposed load, the faster it comes down.
- • Wetting and cooling steel structural members will buy you time.
- • Brown or dark smoke coming from lightweight structural components means it is time to back out if it cannot be dampened.