Pharmacology - Anti-Parasites 1

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kyleannkelsey
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259610
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Pharmacology - Anti-Parasites 1
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2014-02-01 14:18:09
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Pharmacology Anti Parasites
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Pharmacology - Anti-Parasites 1
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Pharmacology - Anti-Parasites 1
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  1. Where is an Entamoeba histolytica infection acquired?
    Tainted water, often in a foreign country
  2. Where is a cryptosporidium parvum infection infection acquired?
    Tainted drinking water, often in another country
  3. Which protozoa is particularly resistant to chlorination?
    Cryptosporidium parvum
  4. Where is a Giardia Lamblia infection acquired?
    Tainted water
  5. What is the lifecycle of toxoplasma gondii?
    Mice, to cats, where sexual reproduction of the organism occurs, to feces, to mice
  6. Which fungus can only be treated with anti-protozoal drugs?
    Pneumocystis jiroveci
  7. What parasite causes Pneumocystis Pneumonia?
    Pneumocytis jiroveci
  8. What patient population is primarily at risk for Pneumocytis Jirovechi?
    Immunosupressed
  9. What are the main clinically relevant protozoal parasites?
    Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvu, Giardia lamblia, Trichonomias vaginalis and Toxoplasma gondii
  10. Which protozoa is an STD?
    Trichonomas vaginalis
  11. Which clinically relevant protozoal parasites cause intestinal infections?
    Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvu and Giardia lamblia
  12. Which clinically relevant protozoal parasites cause EXTRAintestinal infections?
    Trichonomias vaginalis and Toxoplasma gondii
  13. What is the MOA of Nitroimidazoles (metronidazole and tinidazole)?
    Enter cell and are reduced by pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoeductase (not in mammal cells) to free radicals that destroy the DNA and proteins
  14. By what route is metronidazole given?
    Orally
  15. What percent of metronidazole is absorbed orally?
    100%
  16. What is the half-life of metronidazole?
    8-10 hours
  17. Which clinically relevant parasites can be treated with metrinidazole?
    E. histolytics, G. lambia, Trichonomiasis vaginalis
  18. Why is Metronidazole not efficient at treating intestinal protozoal infections?
    Because it is well absorbed, so does not stay in the gut long
  19. What are the side effects of metronidazoles?
    Urine discoloration (not as common as in past), GI issues, metallic taste, neuropathy, disulfarin-like effect and neutropenia
  20. Can you use metronidazole during pregnancy?
    Not during the first trimester
  21. What is the spectrum of tinidazole?
    E. histolytics, G. lambia, Trichonomiasis vaginalis (same as metronidazole)
  22. How does tinidazole compare to metronidazole?
    Better tolerated and longer half-life, with fewer daily doses
  23. What is the hal-life for tinidazole?
    12-14 hours
  24. Can you use tinidazole during pregnany?
    Not during the first trimester
  25. How many doses a day do you need to take with tiidazole?
    1
  26. How many doses a day do you need to take with metronidazole?
    2
  27. How does Diloxanide furoate compare to diloxanide?
    Diloxanide furoate is a prodrug of diloxanide
  28. What is the spectrum for diloxanide?
    E. histolytica (for acute treatment must be used in combo w/ metronidazole or tinidazole)
  29. What are the side effects of diloxanide?
    Minor GI effects
  30. What patient population is less likely to have side effect when using diloxanide?
    Children
  31. Is diloxanide good for luminal or tissue treatment?
    Only luminal, it is degraded before reaching the tissues
  32. What is the MOA for Iodoquinol?
    Unknown, oral metal chelator (Zn)
  33. Iodoquinol only ills Trophozoites, in what part of the body?
    Colon
  34. Iodoquinol is used with what other anti-parasitic drug to treat parasites of the colon?
    Metronidazole
  35. Is Iodoquinol well absorbed?
    No, little absorption
  36. What are the side effects of Iodoquinol?
    Optic atrophy (high prolonged doses), GI effects
  37. Is Iodoquinol generally poorly or well tolerated?
    Well
  38. What patient population is Iodoquinol contraindicated in?
    Those with a Quinolone or Iodine hypersensitivity
  39. What is the MOA for paromomycin?
    Protein synthesis inhibitor, aminoglycoside antibiotic
  40. Is paromomycin well absorbed?
    No
  41. How is paromomycin administered?
    Orally or IM
  42. What is the spectrum for paromomycin?
    E. Histolytica, giardiasis and visceral leishmanias
  43. What are the side effects of paromomycin?
    GI, ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity (later 2 at high doses and rare)
  44. How would you administered paromomycin for a visceral leishmanias treatment?
    IM (all other parasites administer orally)
  45. What is the route of administration or Nitazoxanide?
    Oral
  46. What is the spectrum fro Nitazoxanide?
    Cyryptosporidium parvum and giardia lamblia
  47. What is the MOA of Nitazoxanide?
    Competitive inhibitor of pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase
  48. Is Nitazoxanide and active or prodrug?
    Prodrug
  49. What are the side effects of Nitazoxanide?
    GI side effects
  50. What parasites can be treated with Amphotericin B?
    Visceral and cutaneous leishmanias

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