Pharmacology - Anti-Parasites 2

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kyleannkelsey
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259612
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Pharmacology - Anti-Parasites 2
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2014-02-01 14:17:47
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Pharmacology Anti Parasites
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Pharmacology - Anti-Parasites 2
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Pharmacology - Anti-Parasites 2
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  1. What are the adverse effects of Amphotericin B?
    Infusion reactions, nephrotoxicity and hypokalemia
  2. What is the vector for Leishmania?
    Sand flies
  3. What is the MOA of amphotericin B?
    Ergosterol synthesis inhibitor
  4. How is miltefosine administered?
    Orally
  5. Is miltefosinie used alone or in combination?
    Incombination
  6. What is the indication or miltefosine?
    Visceral leishmanias
  7. Miltefosine has what MOA?
    Inhibits metabolism of glycolipids on Leishmania membranes
  8. What are the side effects of Miltefosine?
    GI
  9. In what patient population is miltefosine contraindicated?
    First trimester of pregnancy
  10. Miltefosin is similar in structure to what natural component of our membranes?
    Phospholipids
  11. What is the route of administration for Sodium Stibogluconate?
    IV
  12. What is Sodium Stibogluconate indicated for?
    Leishmaniasis
  13. What is the MOA for Sodium Stibogluconate?
    Pentavalanet antimony is converted to a trivalent antimony which interacts with cellular components
  14. What are the side effects of Sodium Stibogluconate?
    GI, Musculoskeletal and QT prolongation
  15. Which is better tolerated miltefosine or Sodium Stibogluconate?
  16. Sodium Stibogluconate
  17. What type of drugs is Sodium Stibogluconate contraindicated with?
    Others that cause QT prolongation
  18. What is the spectrum for pentamidine?
    Early stages of West African trypanosomiasis T. brucei gabiense leishmanias, Pneumocystis jiroveci
  19. What is the best treatment for Pneumocystis jiroveci?
    Trimethoprim and sulfamethazole
  20. What are the routes of administration available for pentamidine?
    IM, Inhalation ot IV
  21. Does Pentamidine penetrate the BBB?
    No
  22. What is the MOA for pentamidine?
    Transported into trypanosome, binds DNA and interferes with DNA, RNA and protein synthesis
  23. What are the side effects of pentamidine?
    IV: QT prolongation and Hypotension, pancreatitis (insulin and violet cells), nephrotoxicity, hypoglycemia, and injection site pain and GI effects
  24. Is pentamidine well tolerated?
    No, lots of side effects
  25. What is the routes of administration for SUramin?
    IV
  26. What is the spectrum of action for Suramin?
    East African trypanosomiasis T. brucei rhodesiense, gambiense (early stages)
  27. What are the side effects of Suramin?
    Metallic taste, GI, rash, peripheral neuropathy, nephrotoxicity, seizures (rare)
  28. Will Suramin cross the BBB?
    No
  29. Why can’t Suramin be used for later stages of East African trypanosomiasis T. brucei rhodesiense and gambiense?
    Does not cross the BBB
  30. What is the routes of administration for Eflornithine?
    IV
  31. What is the spectrum of action for Eflornithine?
    West African trypanosomiasis T. brucei gambiense second stage w/ CNS involvement and facial hirsutism
  32. What are the side effects of Eflornithine?
    Anemia, leukopenia, GI, seizures, thrombocytopenia, reversible hearing loss
  33. What is the MOA for Eflornithine?
    Inhibits ornithine decarboxylase
  34. What is the cellular function of ornithine decarboxylase?
    Stabilizes DNA by catalyzing the first step of polyamine biosynthesis which is important for regulating parasite cell division
  35. What is the spectrum for Melarsoprol?
    East African trypanosomiasis T. brucei rhodesiense (late stages)
  36. How is Melarsoprol administered?
    IV
  37. What is the MOA for Melarsoprol?
    Transported by trypanosome where trivalent organoarsenic cpd is metabolized tomelarsen oxide and reacts with sulfahydryl groups on the trypanosome protein
  38. What are the side effects for Melarsoprol?
    Encephalopathy, rash, pain at inj. site, peripheral neuropathy and GI
  39. How can you reduce Melarsoprol’s encephalopathy effects?
    Give with a corticosteroid like prednisolone
  40. Does Melarsoprol cross the BBB?
    Yes
  41. What is the spectrum for Benzidazole?
    American Trypanosomiasis T. cruzi (Chagas)
  42. How is Benzidazole administered?
    Oral
  43. What is the MOA for Benzidazole?
    Converts O and nitroreductase CYP450 enzymes to nitrogentated free radicals which destroy proteins and nucleic acids. Parasites can’t detoxify free radicals
  44. What are the side effects for Benzidazole?
    Teratogenicity, rash, peripheral neuropathy, GI, myelosuppresion and hemolytic anemia
  45. What patient population is more prone to hemolytic anemia when using Benzidazole?
    G6PD deficient
  46. What is the spectrum for Nifurtimox?
    American Trypanosomiasis T cruzi (Chagas) and T. brucei gamiense
  47. Nifurtimox should be used in combination with what other drug to be effective agains T. bruci gambiense?
    Eflornithine
  48. How is Nifurtimox administered?
    Oral
  49. What is the MOA for Nifurtimox?
    Converts O and nitroreductase CYP450 enzymes to nitrogentated free radicals which destroy proteins and nucleic acids. Parasites can’t detoxify free radicals
  50. What are the side effects for Nifurtimox?
    Teratogen, neuropathy, GI, rash, seizures and anorexia

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