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  1. What type of bond is water?
    Water is a polar covalent bond
  2. What are the FOUR major properties of water?
    • Cohesion
    • Moderation of temperature
    • Floating of Ice
    • Solvent for Polar Substances
  3. What is Cohesion?
    the linkage of like molecule sometimes with hydrogen bonds
  4. Water has ______ surface tension?
    HIGH surface tension

    Explanation: this is because of Hydrogen bonds
  5. What is surface tension?
    a measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid
  6. What is ADHESION?
    the clinging of one substance to another
  7. Water ____ changing temperature.
    RESISTS, because of Hydrogen bonding
  8. What is TEMPERATURE?
    measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules
  9. What happens when water molecules hydrogen bonds gain kinetic energy?
    water molecules are "holding" on to one another, so they cant move easily, but the bonds will get enough kinetic energy to break away
  10. You have to have a lot of ____ to get a body of water to _______.
    • HEAT
    • change temperature
  11. Water has high ______ and high ________.
    • specific heat
    • heat of vaporization
  12. What is Specific Heat?
    amt of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g. of a substance to change temp. by 1 degree C.

    measure of how well a substance resists changing its temperature when it absorbs or releases heat.
  13. What is Heat of Vaporization?
    amt of heat needed for 1 g. of substance to be converted from liquid to gas

  14. What is a Calorie (cal)?
    the amount of heat it takes to raise the temp. of 1 g of water by 1 degree Celsius.
  15. What is a joule(J)?
    • one J = 0.239 cal
    • one cal = 4.184 J
  16. Water will change its temperature _____ when it absorbs or loses a given amount of heat.

    Explanation: water has a high specific heat relative to other materials
  17. The speed of molecular movement varies and temperature is the _______ kinetic energy of molecules.
  18. Water's high heat of vaporization is an ______ resulting from the strength of hydrogen bond, which must be broken before molecules can convert from liquid to gas.
    emergent property
  19. Solid water(ICE) is ______ than liquid water
    less dense

    Explanation:  hydrogen bonding, water solidifies and expands.
  20. What is a hydration shell?
    the sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
  21. What is molecular mass? What unit is used?
    • the sum of the masses of the atoms in a molecule 
    • mole (mol)
  22. What is Avagadro's number?
    6.02 x 1023
  23. What is Molarity?
    the # of moles of solute per liter of solution
  24. Describe how properties of water contribute to the upward movement of water in a tree.
    • hydrogen bonds hold neighboring water molecules together. This cohesion helps the chain of water molecules move upward against gravity in water conducting cells as water evaporates from the leave. Adhesion between water molecules and the walls of the water-conducting cells also helps counter gravity.
    • Evaportraspiration
  25. Explain the saying "it's not the heat; it's the humidity"
    high humidity hampers cooling by suppressing the evaporation of sweat
  26. What is a hydrogen ion (H+)?
    when a hydrogen atom leaves its electron behind, what is transferred is the hydrogen ion.
  27. What is a hydroxide ion?
    the water molecule that lost a proton (OH-)
  28. What is a hydronium ion?
    • a protons binds with a water molecule
    • (H30+)
  29. What is an acid?
    a substance that increase the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
  30. What is a base?
    substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
  31. What is pH?
    the measurement of the concentration of free Hydrogen Ions in a solution
  32. Formula for pH?
    pH= -log [H+]
  33. What are some notes on pH log?
    • changing the concentration by 10 times
    • an inverse relationship b/c of -log
  34. Basic solutions have _____ concentrations of H+ ions
  35. _____ can absorb or bind to H+ thereby taking the H+ out of solution.
  36. Buffer systems are made up of a ______ and the _____ that forms when it dissolves water.
    • weak acid
    • base
  37. What is the purpose of a Buffer?
    • helps maintain a constant concentration of H+ in solution
    • Help maintain pH of solution
  38. Acids that are ionized give off ______
    free protons
  39. What causes ocean acidification?
    • the burning of fossil fuels increases the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. some of the CO2 dissolves in the oceans.
    • consequences on coral reefs
Card Set:
2014-02-01 23:33:14

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