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What type of bond is water?
Water is a polar covalent bond
What are the FOUR major properties of water?
- Moderation of temperature
- Floating of Ice
- Solvent for Polar Substances
What is Cohesion?
the linkage of like molecule sometimes with hydrogen bonds
Water has ______ surface tension?
HIGH surface tension
Explanation: this is because of Hydrogen bonds
What is surface tension?
a measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid
What is ADHESION?
the clinging of one substance to another
Water ____ changing temperature.
RESISTS, because of Hydrogen bonding
What is TEMPERATURE?
a measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules
What happens when water molecules hydrogen bonds gain kinetic energy?
water molecules are "holding" on to one another, so they cant move easily, but the bonds will get enough kinetic energy to break away
You have to have a lot of ____ to get a body of water to _______.
Water has high ______ and high ________.
- specific heat
- heat of vaporization
What is Specific Heat?
amt of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g. of a substance to change temp. by 1 degree C.
measure of how well a substance resists changing its temperature when it absorbs or releases heat.
What is Heat of Vaporization?
amt of heat needed for 1 g. of substance to be converted from liquid to gas
What is a Calorie (cal)?
the amount of heat it takes to raise the temp. of 1 g of water by 1 degree Celsius.
What is a joule(J)?
- one J = 0.239 cal
- one cal = 4.184 J
Water will change its temperature _____ when it absorbs or loses a given amount of heat.
Explanation: water has a high specific heat relative to other materials
The speed of molecular movement varies and temperature is the _______ kinetic energy of molecules.
Water's high heat of vaporization is an ______ resulting from the strength of hydrogen bond, which must be broken before molecules can convert from liquid to gas.
Solid water(ICE) is ______ than liquid water
Explanation: hydrogen bonding, water solidifies and expands.
What is a hydration shell?
the sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
What is molecular mass? What unit is used?
- the sum of the masses of the atoms in a molecule
- mole (mol)
What is Avagadro's number?
6.02 x 1023
What is Molarity?
the # of moles of solute per liter of solution
Describe how properties of water contribute to the upward movement of water in a tree.
- hydrogen bonds hold neighboring water molecules together. This cohesion helps the chain of water molecules move upward against gravity in water conducting cells as water evaporates from the leave. Adhesion between water molecules and the walls of the water-conducting cells also helps counter gravity.
Explain the saying "it's not the heat; it's the humidity"
high humidity hampers cooling by suppressing the evaporation of sweat
What is a hydrogen ion (H+)?
when a hydrogen atom leaves its electron behind, what is transferred is the hydrogen ion.
What is a hydroxide ion?
the water molecule that lost a proton (OH-)
What is a hydronium ion?
- a protons binds with a water molecule
What is an acid?
a substance that increase the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
What is a base?
substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
What is pH?
the measurement of the concentration of free Hydrogen Ions in a solution
Formula for pH?
pH= -log [H+]
What are some notes on pH log?
- changing the concentration by 10 times
- an inverse relationship b/c of -log
Basic solutions have _____ concentrations of H+ ions
_____ can absorb or bind to H+ thereby taking the H+ out of solution.
Buffer systems are made up of a ______ and the _____ that forms when it dissolves water.
What is the purpose of a Buffer?
- helps maintain a constant concentration of H+ in solution
- Help maintain pH of solution
Acids that are ionized give off ______
What causes ocean acidification?
- the burning of fossil fuels increases the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. some of the CO2 dissolves in the oceans.
- consequences on coral reefs