Types of Rock

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  1. Igneous
    Extremely dense and hard (ex. Granite, Basalt)
  2. Sedimentary
    Medium-density and relatively easy to work with (ex. Limestone, Sandstone)
  3. Metamorphic
    any kind of stone that has been transformed by heat, pressure, or chemiccal actino into another type of stone (ex. Marble is altered limestone, Gneiss was once granite)
  4. Argillite
    Metamorphic rock, medium to hard density (somewhere between shale and slate), dark red in color. Used for building. Usually cut into blocky, rectangular and square shapes.
  5. Alabaster
    Dense translucent or white fine-grained gypsum, slightly harder than soapstone and great for carving.
  6. Basalt
    Dark-colored, fine-grained igneous rock formed by solidification of lava. Many types around the world. The Giants Causeway along coast of Northern Ireland is made of 37,000 basalt columns ranging from hexagons to polygons. Also in Pac. Northwest of US it's often used in water features and as water basins.
  7. Feldspar
    Rock-forming mineral that occurs mostly in igneous rocks, nearly 60% of earth's crust is made of it.
  8. Gneiss
    Metamorphic rock made of separate layers or bandings of materials, such as quartz, feldspar, and mica. Rustic surface quality, so good for building stone for mortared veneer and dry stone walls and commonly found on mountainous slopes, in fields, and in creek beds.
  9. Granite
    Often used in building and ornamental work. Heavy, coarse-grained igneous rock that contains quartz and feldspar. One of the hardest and most durable stones.
  10. Hornblende
    Bluish green to black mineral found in newly formed igneous rock.
  11. Limestone
    Primarily made of calcium carbonate, derived from marine sediments, sedimentary stone. Good for carving and building. Varieties include oolitic, dolomitic, and carboniferous, each different based on texture and density.
  12. Marble
    Fine to coarse-grained crystalline rock, such as limestone, which has metamorphosed from its original form by heat and pressure.
  13. Quartz
    Common mineral made primarily of Silica, a compound of silicon and oxygen. Present in many rocks and appears as speckling in granite and as bands in stones such as gneiss and hornblende.
  14. Quartzite
    Metamorphosed sandstone, extremely hard and nonporous. Contains up to 90% quartz. Considered a hard stone, but tends to shatter when struck with a hammer. Makes good border around garden beds, and larger pieces make good viewing stones.
  15. Sandstone
    Porous sedimentary stone with consistent crystalline structure. Medium density, good choice for mortared and dry-laid stonework. Easy to break and trim with hammer, suitable for stone carving.
  16. Schist
    Metamorphic rock made of flaky, relatively parallel layers of minerals, including iron and mica.
  17. Shale
    Soft rock made of layers of compacted, fine-grained clay, silt, or mud sediments.
  18. Slate
    Metamorphic rock was fine clay that metamorphosed by heat and pressure. Dense, fine-grained stone readily splits into thin, smooth pieces, commonly used for roofing, mortared paving, and kitchen countertops.
  19. Soapstone
    Soft, metamorphic rock made mostly of talc. Smooth, soapy feel, great for carving.
Card Set
Types of Rock
Types of Rock and their characteristics
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