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2014-02-01 18:00:00

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  1. absolute cinema
    films that are purely artistic expressions of light, color, form, shape and movement, without narrative content or documenting intent
  2. abstract art
    art that departs from natural or realistic appearances
  3. Abstract Expressionism
    art movement of mid-20th century that emphasized spontaneous and dramatic personal expression in large abstract paintings
  4. acoustics
    the science of sound, concerned primarily with the production, propagation, and perception of sound
  5. Acrylic
    a paint made of color pigments with a synthetic polymer as a binder; it does not darken or yellow with age
  6. Addition
    when a sculptor adds or combines material (sometimes called built sculpture)
  7. Aerial or atmospheric perspective
    the use of light, atmosphere, and haziness to indicate depth or distance
  8. aesthetic distance
    an audience's detachment or non-involvement with the characters or situation that allows for contemplation or reflection
  9. Aesthetic experience
    an experience of beauty that inspires a feeling of pleasure which is its own justification
  10. Aesthetics
    a conception of what is artistically valid or beautiful in art, culture, or nature
  11. Agape
    Greek term for platonic love
  12. agnosticism
    philosophical position that one cannot know for certain whether God exists or not
  13. ahimsa
    principle of non-violence; an important tenet of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism
  14. altruism
    acting for the sake of others, even when it means sacrificing self-interest
  15. ancient Egyptian art
    artwork from lower Nile Valley civilization, circa 5,000-1,350 B.C.E.
  16. ancient Greek art
    artwork from Classical Greece, circa 8,000-146 B.C.E.
  17. ancient Mesopotamian art
    artwork from successive civilizations found between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians), circa 9,000-500 B.C.E.
  18. ancient Persian art
    artwork from a number of successive Persian civilizations (Achaemenian, Seleucid dynasty, Parthian, Sassanian), circa 3500-250 B.C.E.
  19. antebellum
    existing before a war, especially the American Civil War
  20. Apollonian response
    an analytical, rational, objective reaction
  21. Aquatint
    a method of etching (intaglio) that imitates the broad tints of a water color
  22. Archetypes
    the emblematic mythic characters, images, plot patterns, symbols, and buried assumptions shared across cultures
  23. Architecture
    the science and art of designing buildings and other structures
  24. aria
    long, accompanied song for a solo voice, typically found in an opera or oratorio
  25. Art
    skill and imagination used to create or produce aesthetic objects
  26. art music
    music created for the Christian church, the European courts, and the concert halls, from the Middle Ages to the present; also called classical music
  27. Art Nouveau
    movement of the late 19th century - early 20th century that favored sinuous lines, curves, and organic motifs, such as plants and flowers
  28. art song
    musical composition for solo voice and piano, often based on poetry, popular in the Romantic Era
  29. Articulation
    a way of connecting the parts of a work of art
  30. artifact
    object produced or shaped by human craft, typically of cultural or historical interest
  31. Artistic form
    elements (lines, shapes, colors) of a work of art organized to effect participants
  32. aside
    a monologue delivered with another character
  33. Asymmetry
    the uneven distribution of elements throughout an artwork
  34. atheism
    philosophical position denying the existence of God
  35. atonal music
    music that is written in a way that avoids centering around a specific key
  36. avant-garde music
    term for post-1945 music that uses strange or innovative elements or combines different genres
  37. Balance
    a sense of equilibrium in an artwork, achieved through weight, attention, or attraction of visual elements
  38. ballet
    classical form of dance which features a staged presentation of group or solo dancing with music, costumes and scenery, generally with a narrative or story
  39. Baroque
    movement of the 17th and early 18th century in art, architecture, and music known for its religious focus and its elaborate and extensive use of ornamentation
  40. Baroque art
    art movement of the 17th and early 18th century supported by the Catholic Church that emphasized religious fervor, realism, and theatrical architecture
  41. Bauhaus
    German art and architectural style of early 20th century known for its simplicity, functionalism, and craftsmanship
  42. beat
    in music, basic unit of rhythm
  43. blasphemy
    irreverent behavior toward a deity, sacred things, or religion
  44. blues music
    music developed in southern African-American communities at the end of the 19th century that fused work songs, spirituals, and chants and featured a twelve-bar blues chord progression
  45. Book of the Dead
    early Egyptian texts that described the proper conduct needed for a happy afterlife
  46. Buddhism
    religion originated in India by Siddhartha Gautama, the "Buddha"; Buddhists seek the path to enlightenment through physical and spiritual discipline
  47. cadence
    the close or resolution of a musical phrase or section
  48. call and response
    musical interaction in which an idea is stated by one voice or instrument and responded to or echoed by others
  49. cantata
    a multi-sectional vocal work, either sacred or secular in subject matter, usually featuring solos, duets, and choruses, and ranging in accompaniment from small chamber ensembles to large orchestras
  50. Capital
    a decorative device generally placed at the top of a column as a transition for the eye
  51. caricature
    a picture, description, or imitation of a subject where certain characteristics are exaggerated to create a comic or grotesque effect
  52. Categorical Imperative
    Kantian term for an absolute and universal moral demand or obligation founded on reasoning
  53. catharsis
    the purging of a spectator's strong emotions through experiencing tragedy; Aristotle's concept
  54. cave paintings
    Paleolithic paintings of scenes of hunting or fertility, found in caves in France, South Africa, and other regions.
  55. characters
    those depicted in a drama, whether fictional, historical, or contemporary
  56. choreography
    the formal composition of dance into a meaningful whole, expressing a theme, narrative, or emotion
  57. chorus
    in Greek drama, a group of actors who comment on the action and provide society's view of the events
  58. Christianity
    monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who is considered humanity's savior
  59. Cinema
    an artistic medium that uses the motion picture as a vehicle for story telling and other creative expression
  60. cinematography
    art of movie photography, including camera position and lighting, in telling a story
  61. Classical humanism
    the cultural movement of the Renaissance, based on Greek and Roman classic literature, that emphasized the dignity, worth, and rationality of humankind
  62. classical music
    music created for the Christian church, the European courts, and the concert halls, from the Middle Ages to the present; also called art music
  63. Classicism
    aesthetic attitudes and principles found in the art, architecture, and literature of ancient Greece and Rome
  64. close-up
    camera shot where the subject is close; used to establish emotional context
  65. Code of Hammurabi
    legal code established by the sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, that covered civil, criminal, and commercial law
  66. Collage
    a composition made of various materials (as paper, cloth, or wood) glued on a surface
  67. Color
    the perception of reflected or emitted light in terms of hue, value, and intensity
  68. comedy
    A work of theater wherein the sympathetic main characters experience a happy ending
  69. comedy of manners
    comedy which depicts and satirizes the attitudes and manners of a social class
  70. complication
    middle section of a drama where conflicts inherent in the situation are elaborated and developed, and dramatic tension builds until a moment of maximum intensity and interest, called the climax
  71. composers
    musicians who create (write) music.
  72. compressed time
    film technique to establish quick passage of time (for example, shots of flipping calendar pages, or trees changing seasons)
  73. Compressive strength
    ability of a material to withstand crushing
  74. concerto
    composition for soloist and orchestra in three movements (first and third movements fast, second movement slow)
  75. Confucianism
    philosophical system based on the teachings of Confucius, stressing moral order and harmony in thought and conduct
  76. Consequentialism
    ethical system that judges a moral action by its outcomes or results
  77. consonance
    two or more sounds that are pleasing to the ear when played simultaneously; harmonies that create stability in a composition
  78. Context
    set of facts or circumstances that surround a work of art and help us determine and clarify its meaning
  79. continuity editing
    a set of techniques that seek to make the transitions (or cuts) from shot to shot as unobtrusive and continuous as possible
  80. contrast
    technique to make a musical composition more interesting and engaging through contrasting timbres (tone color), or rhythm or tempo (slow and fast)
  81. Corinthian order
    the most decorative of the classical Greek architectural styles, featuring a fluted column shaft, capitals with flowers and leaves below a small scroll, and a large base; used more by the Romans
  82. corps de ballet
    dancers in a ballet company excluding the prima ballerina and danseur noble
  83. costume design
    designing and choosing the costumes (clothing, hats, etc.) for the actors/performers that match the artistic concept of the performance
  84. counterpoint
    simplest form of harmony, which features two melodic lines (referred to as voices or parts) of equal value played against one another
  85. court dance
    a dance form and movements embraced by the aristocracy of Europe, beginning in the Middle Ages
  86. crane shot
    camera shot from a large dolly that allows viewing the actors from above or to move up and away from them
  87. cross cut
    technique of cutting repeatedly between two different sequences, suggesting they are happening simultaneously, or that the events are thematically related
  88. Cubism
    movement of the early 20th century that represented a subject from multiple angles, using simplified geometric forms
  89. Cultural Relativism
    view that morality is culturally determined and consequently there is no objective moral rule or law that is universally correct
  90. Dadaism
    anti-establishment artistic movement that emerged in Europe in reaction to the horrors of World War One and emphasized the absurd
  91. Daguerreotype photography
    named after its French inventor Louis Daguerre, an early (1839) photographic process where an image is made directly onto a light-sensitive silver-coated metallic plate, without using a negative
  92. dance
    an art form involving a sequence of rhythmic movements or steps performed to music
  93. danseur noble
    lead male dancer in a ballet company
  94. Daoism
    philosophical system based on the teachings of Lao-tzu; followers seek Dao (the "Way") which they believe governs the universe
  95. Deductive reasoning
    reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
  96. denouement
    moment when a drama's action comes to its proper conclusion and a resolution is near
  97. Determinism
    philosophical view that all events, including human actions and choices, are determined by previous conditions operating under laws of nature, and thus freedom of choice is illusory
  98. deus ex machina
    the resolution of a plot by use of a highly improbable chance or coincidence; in Latin, "god from the machine"
  99. Dionysian response
    a spontaneous, unstructured, creative, passionate reaction
  100. discovery
    the moment when the main character becomes aware of an essential truth about himself or his situation; also called recognition
  101. dissolve
    a gradual transition from one image to another, usually signifying the passage of time
  102. dissonance
    two or more sounds that are not pleasing to the ear when played simultaneously; unstable harmonies that create tension in a composition
  103. Divine Command Theory
    philosophic approach where morality is whatever God (or the gods) command
  104. documentary cinema
    films that attempt to capture actual events in the very moment they occur
  105. Dome
    a common structural element of architecture resembling the hollow upper half of a sphere
  106. Doric order
    the simplest of the classical Greek architectural styles, featuring unadorned columns with no base
  107. drama
    the enduring literary component of theater
  108. Drypoint
    a printmaking technique (intaglio) involving drawing directly onto the surface of a metal plate with a sharp, pointed tool, often with a diamond point
  109. duration
    persistence of a tone in time, meaning how long it lasts
  110. Duty-Driven Ethics
    ethical system that emphasizes fidelity to principle and duty over the consequences of a moral action
  111. dynamics
    the volume of a tone, meaning the varying degrees of loudness and softness in a composition; also the articulation of the tone, meaning the manner it should be played
  112. Eclecticism
    the inclusion or combination of several different styles in one composition or work of art
  113. elongated moment
    film technique employing detailed shots to stretch out screen time
  114. Empirical study
    a study derived from experiment and observation rather than theory
  115. Empiricism
    philosophical doctrine that says all knowledge is derived from our senses
  116. en pointe
    dancing on tip toe
  117. Encaustic
    a painting technique which originated in ancient times, using pigments mixed with melted beeswax as a binder
  118. Ephemeral
    sculpture designed to make a statement and then cease to exist
  119. epic
    a long poem recounting in elevated style the deeds of a legendary hero; any narrative work (novel, drama, film) dealing with epic themes
  120. Epic of Gilgamesh
    epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia that recounts legends and myths about the hero-king Gilgamesh
  121. Epicureanism
    philosophy which asserts that the greatest happiness in life is found in avoiding pain
  122. Epistemology
    the branch of formal philosophy concerned with the nature and limits of human knowledge
  123. Eros
    Greek term for erotic love or lust
  124. establishment shot
    camera shot that establishes the setting of the scene that follows
  125. Ethical Egoism
    philosophic belief that acting in your own self-interest is moral
  126. Ethics
    the study of the moral values of an individual, group, or culture
  127. etude
    an instrumental musical composition designed to provide practice material for perfecting a particular technical skill in a solo instrument
  128. Existentialism
    philosophical movement that emphasizes personal experience, choice, freedom, and responsibility and sees the individual as a moral free agent
  129. exposition
    an opening which introduces the characters and their circumstances, the setting, the mood, and the situation, giving the audience information essential for understanding the story
  130. Expressionism
    art movement of early 20th century that emphasized subjective feelings above objective observations and focused on conveying emotions
  131. fade
    a gradual transition from image to darkness, or the reverse
  132. falling action
    series of events in narrative storytelling that occurs after the climax and ends in the resolution or denouement of the story
  133. fantasia
    instrumental work that attempts to give the impression of being spontaneously improvised by the performer.
  134. farce
    a comedy characterized by broad often physical humor, superficial characters, and improbable situations
  135. Fauvism
    movement of the early 20th century that emphasized spontaneous, bold reactions to nature and employed vibrant, wild colors
  136. Feminist ethics
    philosophical movement that emphasizes women's moral experience and feminist thought which, it argues, has been ignored or devalued by traditional ethical systems
  137. Figurative explanation
    a colorful, image-filled, metaphor-rich use of language to describe art or life
  138. film
    form of entertainment that employs a sequence of images giving the illusion of continuous movement to tell a story
  139. Five Classics
    Confucian texts that dealt with the proper functioning of society, government and religion as well as offering a compilation of ancient Chinese literature
  140. Five Great Relationships
    key relationships in Confucianism (between father and son, elder brother and younger brother, husband and wife, elders and juniors, and ruler and his subjects)
  141. Five Great Vows
    vows of non-violence, truth-telling, non-stealing, celibacy, and detachment undertaken by ascetics in Jainism
  142. Five Pillars
    Islamic duties of observing creed, praying, charity to poor, fasting during Ramadan, making pilgrimage to Mecca
  143. flashback
    temporary interruption of the chronological progress of the narrative, during which interruption an event of the past is shown
  144. Focal area
    the place to which a viewer's eye is drawn in a work of art
  145. folk music
    music created by and for the common people of a particular region, or by a disadvantaged ethnic group or religious sect, orally transmitted
  146. folkloric dance
    a dance form reflecting the inherited, traditional dances of the common people
  147. foreshadowing
    the deliberate introduction of information (verbally, visually or otherwise) suggesting an event that will take place later in the story
  148. Form
    the shape or mass of an object within an artwork or composition
  149. form
    compositional element of dance which describes the shape of the body during a dance
  150. Found object
    when art is assembled from common every day items
  151. Four Books
    ancient Chinese texts that outlined the basic system of Confucian thought
  152. Four Noble Truths
    Buddhist teaching on four truths regarding suffering
  153. free jazz
    form of jazz developed between 1950-1960 that emphasized individual performers and collective improvisation as opposed to adhering to pre-established frameworks
  154. Fresco
    a painting technique that applies water-based paint to a wet-plaster surface; also, resulting artwork
  155. fugue
    composition in which the theme or subject is developed through a series of successive imitations
  156. Full round sculpture
    a sculpture employing three-dimensions and meant to be viewed from any and all angles
  157. Functionalism
    the belief that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building
  158. Gandhianism
    philosophical system based on the teachings of Indian spiritual leader Mahatma Gandhi which stresses nonviolent resistance to evil
  159. Geometric Abstraction
    art movement of the early 20th century that stressed the two-dimensionality of painting as observed subjects were converted into geometric shapes
  160. Glyptic
    sculpture which emphasizes the substances or materials from which it is made
  161. Golden Rule
    Christian precept: do to others what you would have them do to you
  162. Gothic art
    artwork of Central and Northern Europe which reflected Christian, and then secular, themes, from mid-12th to the 15th century
  163. Gouache
    watercolor to which an opaque white has been added; also, resulting artwork
  164. grand pli
    in ballet, a deep swoop, while keeping perfect back and neck posture
  165. Graphite
    a soft form of carbon used in pencils
  166. haiku
    Japanese verse form with three lines of five, seven, and five syllables often alluding to the subject of nature or the seasons
  167. halakhah
    Rabbinic religious law
  168. Harlem Renaissance
    period of vibrant African-American cultural and intellectual life during the 1920s and 1930s, centered in New York City's Harlem neighborhood
  169. Harmony
    congruity or compatibility of parts with one another and with the whole; the state of all elements being in perfect balance
  170. harmony
    two or more tones played or sung at the same time; the composition and progression of chords, simultaneous sounds, and counterpoint
  171. hedonism
    the pursuit of pleasure as a matter of ethical principle
  172. Heresy
    a challenge to or rejection of the orthodox doctrines of a religion or church
  173. hero's journey
    the mythic quest in pursuit of some destination or goal whose attainment will lend greater meaning to life
  174. high comedy
    comedy which is subtle, sophisticated, tasteful and intellectual
  175. High relief
    sculptural relief in which forms extend from the background to at least half their depth
  176. Hinduism
    dominant religion of India based on worship of many gods, including Brahma, and the teachings of the Vedas and the Bhagavad Gita
  177. hip-hop music
    music developed in African-American communities during the late 1970s that features rhythmic and rhyming speech ("rapping") and a 4/4 beat
  178. homophonic
    music that moves from chord to chord, without undue elaboration, or with a simple melody
  179. Hue
    the common name of a color (red, blue, green, yellow) and its position in the spectrum or on the color wheel
  180. Humanism
    the study of the creative and intellectual contributions of human cultures
  181. Humanities
    the creative and intellectual contributions of humankind
  182. hypothetical imperatives
    Kantian term for actions conditioned on some goal or desire
  183. iconoclasm
    deliberate destruction of religious art, imagery, icons, and other symbols or monuments
  184. illuminated manuscript
    text that is decorated with ornamental designs, miniatures, or lettering, often with gold leaf or silver
  185. Imagery
    employment of evocative images in works of art, especially poetry and literature, where words can summon up "mental pictures" for the reader
  186. Impasto
    the thick application of paint creating a textured surface on the canvas
  187. Impressionism
    movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries that emphasized simplified composition and the effect of light and color to capture a painter's visual impression
  188. improvisation
    variations on a musical theme spontaneously created
  189. improvisational dance
    dance that is free form movement created and performed spontaneously
  190. Inductive reasoning
    reasoning that proceeds from particular facts to a general conclusion
  191. Instrumentalism
    philosophic theory that ideas are instruments of response and adaptation to a given situation, and that their truth is to be judged in terms of their effectiveness
  192. Intaglio
    a printing technique in which an image is printed from a recessed design incised or etched into the surface of a plate
  193. Intensity
    the strength, or purity of a color
  194. intermezzo
    a composition which is performed between acts of a play or movements of a larger musical work
  195. interval
    the difference in pitch between tones, usually expressed in the number of steps
  196. Ionic order
    classical Greek architectural style that features a fluted column shaft, capitals with volutes (spiral scroll-like ornaments) and a large base
  197. Islam
    monotheistic religion based on the Qur'an and teaching that there is only one God and that Mohammed is his prophet
  198. Jainism
    ancient Hindu religion which emphasizes harmlessness (nonviolence) and renunciation
  199. jazz dance
    movements and gestures inspired by jazz
  200. jazz fusion
    form of jazz that began in the 1970s and combines jazz with other genres, including rock and rhythm and blues
  201. jazz music
    musical style developed by African-Americans at the beginning of the 20th century that is an amalgamation of African and European music, featuring improvisation, syncopation, polyrhythms and the use of "swing time"
  202. jet
    in ballet, a leap, pushing off from one leg and landing on the other
  203. Judaism
    monotheistic religion of the Jews based on the Torah; Jews believe that they are God's Chosen People meant to live a holy and ethical life
  204. jump cut
    immediate transition from one moment in a shot to a later moment in the same shot, causing an abrupt shift in the subject's position
  205. Juxtaposition
    the side-by-side placement of objects in an artwork or composition
  206. karma
    the belief that the good and evil a person does will return either in this life or in a later one
  207. key
    a specific scale, determined by the first note in that scale, which dominates in a section of music
  208. Law of the Golden Section
    law that expresses the most aesthetically satisfying relationship between the two sides of a plane (for example, a rectangle); the ratio is 1 to 1.68
  209. leap of faith
    Kierkegaard's notion that belief in God requires us to overcome any rational doubts and embrace faith
  210. libertarianism
    political philosophy which emphasizes personal and individual liberty above collective social interests
  211. Line
    the path of a moving point through space
  212. line
    compositional element of dance which describes the linear nature of the body's positioning
  213. linear perspective
    creation of the illusion of depth based on the fact that parallel lines or edges appear to converge, and objects appear smaller as the distance between them and a viewer increases
  214. Linear sculpture
    a sculpture employing two-dimensional materials
  215. Lithography
    a printing technique employing the antipathy of oil and water; a flat surface with a design area (image) that is ink-receptive is printed and the non-printed area is ink-repellent
  216. Logic
    thinking in a linear, step-by-step manner about ideas or problems
  217. long shot
    camera shot where the subject(s) are at a distance that gives them context, devoting about half of the frame to the actor(s), emphasizing their surroundings
  218. low comedy
    comedy which is often vulgar, rude, coarse and physical
  219. Low relief
    sculptural relief that projects very little from the background; also called bas-relief
  220. madrigal
    a polyphonic vocal work, usually written for four or five voices, setting a pastoral poem to music, performed without instrumental accompaniment, and intended for secular use
  221. Mahabharata
    major religious epic of ancient India and a major text of Hinduism
  222. Mahayana
    Buddhist discipline that emphasizes selfless action on behalf of others
  223. Manipulation
    when a sculptor shapes the material by hand (modeling clay or other materials)
  224. Mannerism
    art movement of the Late Renaissance that emphasized artificiality, clashing colors, and emotional themes
  225. Mass
    the size, shape, and volume of three-dimensional forms
  226. mass
    a vocal composition including the sung portions of the Roman Catholic liturgy, primarily in Latin
  227. Minimalism
    movement of mid-20th century that emphasized a nonrepresentational style of sculpture and painting and extreme simplicity of form
  228. master shot
    uninterrupted shot of an entire scene, usually used as a timing and pacing reference during the editing process
  229. Materialism
    philosophical position that all processes, phenomena, and objects/beings can be explained as manifestations or results of matter
  230. megaliths
    large stone monuments of the Neolithic period (such as Stonehenge)
  231. melodrama
    a drama with exaggerated characters and plot intended to appeal to the emotions
  232. melody
    succession of tones in a given sequence that possesses certain subjective qualities - a perceivable coherence, an inevitability, and a sense of completion
  233. Mesolithic art
    art of the Middle Stone Age, circa 10,000-8,000 B.C.E.
  234. Metaphor
    a figure of speech in which something is explained in terms of something else
  235. meter
    grouping of beats into measures
  236. microliths
    small stone tools, usually made of flint or chert, from the Mesolithic period
  237. Middle Ages
    the thousand-year period in European history from the fall of the Roman Empire to the dawn of the Renaissance
  238. mise-en-scne
    the visual elements of drama
  239. Mobile
    a type of kinetic sculpture in which parts move, often by air currents
  240. Modernism
    artistic movements of the late 19th and 20th centuries which challenged traditional representational art forms and developed new styles and forms
  241. moksha
    Hindu concept of state of eternal bliss that marks freedom from life's pain and stress
  242. monologue
    speech delivered to another person or several persons without interruption by another character
  243. Monomyth
    the hero's journey archetype that appears in all cultures
  244. monophonic
    music that contains only a single part
  245. monotheism
    belief in one god or almighty deity; religion based on one supreme god
  246. montage
    an extended sequence comprised of many different shots or images, cut together to condense the narrative, or to create a specific impression
  247. moral autonomy
    the capacity to impose moral law on oneself
  248. morality
    the right or wrong of an action, decision, or way of living
  249. motet
    unaccompanied polyphonic vocal work, often setting a sacred Latin text to music
  250. motif
    in music, a brief but recognizable recurring fragment of a melody
  251. Movement
    a change of position, location, or timeframe; sense of motion, action, or time created in a work of art; distinct compositional units of a symphony; broad thematic social and artistic concerns of a given time period as expressed in its works of art
  252. movement
    the primary element of dance
  253. music
    the art of organizing sound, usually those sounds created by musical instruments or the human voice
  254. musical notation
    the special symbols and language of the modern score
  255. musicians
    artists who create and/or perform music
  256. Myths
    traditional stories of a people or culture that serve to explain some natural phenomenon, the origin of humanity, or customs or religious rites
  257. narrative cinema
    films that use the same forms and techniques used by theater and literature to tell a story
  258. Negative
    mold from which a sculpture is cast
  259. Neoclassicism
    movement of 18th century that drew on Greek and Roman art for models of harmony, idealized realism, and reason
  260. Neolithic art
    art of the Late Stone Age, circa 8,000-3,000 B.C.E.
  261. Neoplatonism
    a school of religious philosophy founded in the 3rd century A.D. and based on the teachings of Plato
  262. nirvana
    Buddhist term for the state of bliss offering total peace and freedom from life's pain
  263. Noble Eightfold Path
    Buddhist teaching of nine practices (right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration) for happiness and freedom
  264. nocturne
    an instrumental work, usually for piano, that attempts to evoke dreamy, contemplative feelings, commonly featuring a slow, soft, lyrical melody and a flowing accompaniment
  265. normative
    a standard or set of norms established for behavior
  266. note
    a rounded symbol which indicates the length of a pitch by its shape and coloring
  267. Oil paint
    a paint made of color pigments mixed in slowly drying oil; its main binding agent for pigment is linseed oil
  268. opera
    a fully-produced, multi-sectional work for the theater whose text (or libretto) is primarily sung by soloists and a chorus, and which is accompanied by instruments, usually a large orchestra
  269. oratorio
    a multi-sectional work for vocalists and orchestra, which uses the same structural elements as opera, without the use of scenery, setting, and costume
  270. orchestra
    instrumental ensemble that contains string, brass, woodwind, and percussion sections and typically plays classical or art music
  271. overture
    orchestral work, usually in two or three contrasting sections, used as the introduction to an opera or other dramatic piece
  272. Paleolithic art
    art of the hunter-gatherer nomadic tribes of the Old Stone Age, circa 40,000-10,000 B.C.E.
  273. Palette
    the range or set of colors characteristic of a particular artist
  274. panning
    horizontal movement of the camera from a fixed position
  275. pas de deux
    a "dance for two," or duet
  276. Pastel
    a soft, colored chalk stick or crayon made of pigments and a gum binder, usually applied to paper; also, resulting artwork
  277. performance art
    a type of experimental theater that bridges the disciplines of theater and the visual arts
  278. Perspective
    the representation of objects receding into the distance in two-dimensional art
  279. Philosophy
    the systematic investigation of fundamental questions concerning such matters as existence, reality, consciousness, knowledge, truth, and justice
  280. Pictorialism
    a school of photography that employed soft focus, special filters and lens coatings, darkroom manipulation, and innovative printing processes to try to match the aesthetic effects of painting and printmaking
  281. pirouette
    in ballet, a slow turn on one leg, standing en pointe
  282. pitch
    any sound that sets up regular vibrations in the air and is perceived as a discrete tone; the relative highness or lowness can be measured in vibrations per second
  283. plainsong
    the sung prayers of the early Christian church
  284. Platonic virtues
    Plato's four virtues: Temperance, Courage, Reason and Justice
  285. plot
    how the various events that make up the story are arranged
  286. Point of view
    the position or perspective from which something is viewed or related
  287. point of view (POV) shot
    camera shot where the camera assumes a subject's view and thus viewers see what the subject sees
  288. Pointillism
    school of painting in late 19th-century France that emphasized the application of paint in small dots and brush strokes
  289. polyphonic
    music with several independent parts sounding at once
  290. polytheism
    belief in multiple gods; religion based on more than one god
  291. Pop Art
    art movement of mid-20th century which emphasized existing popular images and cultural artifacts, often mimicking mass-produced consumer products
  292. pop music
    song-based music typically oriented toward the youth market, featuring short verse-chorus songs often with a catchy beat and simple lyrics
  293. popular music
    widely disseminated music meant principally for enjoyment in the home
  294. Post-Impressionism
    art movement of the early 20th century that while influenced by Impressionism emphasized a greater concern for expression, structure, form, and emotional response
  295. Post-Modernism
    art style which embraces an eclectic combination of all styles and periods in works of art and does not differentiate between high art and popular (or low) art, often mixing informal and formal elements
  296. Pragmatic reasoning
    reasoning that assumes the truth of an idea can be validated by its practical outcome
  297. Pragmatism theory
    that the truth or meaning of an idea or a proposition lies in its observable practical consequences
  298. predestination
    Christian theological concept that the course of one's life, including all the choices one will make, is already completely determined by an all-powerful, all-knowing God
  299. prehistoric art
    art of preliterate humans, roughly until 500 B.C.E.
  300. presentism
    the interpretation of past events or works of art in terms of modern standards and values
  301. pretext
    narrative storyline of a ballet
  302. prima ballerina
    lead female dancer in a ballet company
  303. Principle of Equal Treatment
    principle that people should be treated in the same way unless there is a relevant difference between them
  304. Propaganda
    systematic propagation of information promoting a doctrine or cause
  305. Proportion
    the relative relationship of shapes or forms to one another in regards to size, height, width, length, or depth
  306. protagonist
    the main, and most important, character of a drama; Aristotle saw this character as one who chooses, learns, and changes
  307. Protestant work ethic
    religious emphasis on the necessity of constant work in a person's life as an expression of moral virtue
  308. Psychological Egoism
    descriptive theory that argues that humans naturally pursue whatever aligns with their best self-interest
  309. Qur'an
    holy text of Islam
  310. ragtime music
    music popular from 1900-1920 that that preceded jazz, was influenced by African American songs and featured syncopated, or "ragged," rhythm
  311. Realism
    art movement of second half of 19th century that emphasized objective portrayals of the world with a critique of the established social and political order; response to idealized Romantic art
  312. Reformation art
    art movement of the 16th century, largely in Northern Europe, that reflected religious views of Protestant Reformation
  313. reincarnation
    the belief that a soul can be reborn into a new body after death
  314. Relief
    in printing, a technique in which the intended printing surface is left raised, with remaining areas cut away
  315. Relief sculpture
    a sculpture employing three-dimensions attached to a background and meant to be seen from one side
  316. religious Existentialism
    version of Existentialism which asserts that existence is the only certainty and belief in God is something we must choose
  317. Renaissance
    period in Western history, from the 14th through the 16th centuries, marked by a revival of interest in the culture of Greco-Roman antiquity and a flourishing of artistic and intellectual achievement
  318. Renaissance man
    a term describing an individual with broad knowledge and versatile talents spanning many intellectual and artistic disciplines
  319. Repetition
    the recurrence of the same visual element in a work of art
  320. Rhythm
    variation of the length and accentuation of a series of sounds or movements over time; in poetry, the arrangement of spoken words alternating stressed and unstressed elements
  321. Rhythm
    the ordered recurrence or repetition of elements
  322. rhythm
    how musical sounds are organized temporally, or in time, employing stressed and unstressed beats
  323. rhythm
    in dance, sequences of motions and levels of energy
  324. rising action
    series of events in narrative storytelling that create tension and suspense in building to the climax of the story
  325. ritual dance
    a dance form of tribal societies for spiritual, practical, and narrative purposes
  326. rock music
    song-based music that became popular after 1960 in the US and Britain that was heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music and features a driving 4/4 beat and a verse-chorus form
  327. Rococo
    late Baroque artistic style that was lighter and more playful and used ornate decoration, pastel colors, and asymmetrical arrangement of shell-like curves
  328. Roman art
    artwork produced by Roman civilization, circa 500 B.C.E.-476 C.E.
  329. Romanesque art
    artwork of Europe which reflected Roman, Eastern, and Byzantine influences, from 10th to mid-12th century
  330. Romanticism
    movement of early 19th century that stressed passion, emotion, and exotic settings with dramatic action; response to rationalism of Neoclassicism/
  331. rondo
    a multi-sectional work, or movement, whose theme recurs multiple times in the course of the piece, always in the tonic key, much like a refrain
  332. salat
    formal Islamic prayer performed by Muslims five times a day
  333. Scale
    the size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people, or its environment
  334. scale
    the frequency of notes heard in ascending or descending order
  335. scenic design
    creation of a 'stage picture' that expresses the concept of the play or performance and creates the appropriate atmosphere for the audience
  336. Scientific method
    a method of designing controlled experiments, gathering data, and developing and testing hypotheses about the natural world
  337. score
    a written version of music, documenting the composer's intentions.
  338. screenplay
    a script with the dialogue, descriptions, and all other elements required to tell the story of a film, television show, or other visual story
  339. secular
    not connected or concerned with religion or religious matters
  340. secular Existentialism
    version of Existentialism which asserts that existence is the only certainty and God cannot be proved
  341. Serigraphy
    a printing technique that forces ink through a stencil (image) on a screen stretched with a fine silk or similar fabric; also called silk-screening or screen-printing
  342. Setting
    the environment and context in which a creative work is set or takes place
  343. sharia
    Islamic religious law
  344. Shifting perspective
    when a viewer considers foreground and background independently and recognizes the separation between them
  345. shot
    basic unit of film-making: what the motion picture camera records in a single stretch of time.
  346. Sikhism
    Indian religion that separated from Hinduism in the 15th and 16th centuries; Sikhs believe in one God and the teachings found in their holy scripture, Guru Granth Sahib
  347. Smartism
    Hindu religious community that emphasizes choice in worship of the manifestations of God and emphasizes the teachings of Vedic texts
  348. Social Contract Theory
    theory that people should give up some of their natural rights to a government in exchange for social order
  349. social dance
    a dance form meant to be enjoyed by the participants within the context of a specific social group
  350. Socratic method
    analytical method of reasoning that asks a progression of questions in pursuit of the truth
  351. soliloquy
    speech by the character in a drama expressing his or her inmost thoughts, heard by the audience but not by any other character
  352. sonata
    an extended multi-movement work generally for a solo instrumentalist
  353. Space
    a sense or feeling of depth, either actual or implied
  354. space
    visual component of dance within a particular three-dimensional area (such as the stage)
  355. spirituals
    religious songs originating among African-American slaves in the American South that fused aspects of African music and religion with Christian hymns
  356. Stoicism
    philosophy that maintains greatest good comes from wisdom, courage, and uncomplaining acceptance of what cannot be directly controlled
  357. Style
    characteristics of a work of art that identify it with a particular artist, region, artistic movement, or historic period
  358. stylized pictographs
    stone paintings of the Neolithic period expressing artistic or religious meaning
  359. subjective shot
    camera shot that shows the character who is experiencing action
  360. sublime
    a quality of greatness or vastness that is beyond calculation, comparison, or imitation; often invoked with reference to nature
  361. Substitution
    when the sculptor molds or casts an artwork
  362. subtext
    unstated motivations, ideas, or tensions beneath the surface of a drama's text
  363. Subtraction
    when the sculptor carves or cuts away unwanted material to create the work
  364. suite
    a set of short musical movements, for one or any combination of instruments, or for orchestra, played in a specific order
  365. Sunken relief
    sculptural relief in which the image or design is modeled below the original surface of the background, which is not cut away
  366. Surrealism
    movement of the early 20th century influenced by Freud's focus on dreams; art assembled realistic forms in fantastical contexts
  367. suspense
    in drama, the creation of anticipation
  368. suspension of disbelief
    an audience's willingness to accept events onstage as true or plausible during a performance
  369. Symbolism
    use of a symbol, object, or image to represent something else (that is, a concept or idea)
  370. Symmetry
    the exact duplication of elements (shapes, forms, etc) on either side of a (usually imaginary) straight-lined central axis
  371. Sympathetic magic
    a mythic ceremony or ritual found in early societies designed to influence the behavior of deities or supernatural forces
  372. symphony
    a full orchestral work usually in four movements
  373. syncopation
    in music, when normally unaccented beats are accented in a piece of music
  374. syncopation
    dance that involves steps to an unstressed beat; improvised or rehearsed execution of more rhythmical step patterns
  375. Synthesis
    the combination of thesis and antithesis which produces a new and higher level of truth
  376. synthesizer
    electronic instrument that produces a variety of sounds by generating and combining signals of different frequencies; it can either imitate other instruments or generate unusual new sounds
  377. Tempera
    a water-based paint that uses egg, glue, or casein as a binder; it dries with a flat, dull finish, which means it is not as luminous as oil paint
  378. tempo
    measured pace at which a composition is played
  379. Ten Commandments
    moral rules given by God to the prophet Moses, according to the Hebrew Bible
  380. Tensile strength
    ability of a material to withstand bending
  381. Texture
    the surface quality (roughness or smoothness) of materials, either actual or implied
  382. texture
    a component of orchestration, referring in a descriptive way to the number of instruments playing at any one time
  383. The Eightfold Path
    the Buddhist guide to a life of peace and harmony including eight directives for living a "right" life
  384. The Forms
    Plato's concept that there are ideal essences (the Forms) of objects or things
  385. The Golden Mean
    desirable middle between two extremes, between excess and inadequacy, as defined by Aristotle
  386. The Hero's Journey
    the mythic quest in pursuit of some destination or goal whose attainment will lend greater meaning to life
  387. the Virtues
    those traits of character or admirable properties allowing humans to achieve a virtuous life
  388. The Way
    the path of the morally enlightened individual in Daoist teaching
  389. theater
    the art of writing and producing plays, a collaborative medium of artistic expression
  390. Theater of Alienation
    dramatic genre associated with Bertold Brecht which sought to create emotional distance by highlighting artificiality of the theater, so the audience would watch objectively and focus on ideas
  391. Theater of Cruelty
    dramatic genre which assaults the senses through shocking scenes with a goal of alienation and entertainment
  392. theme
    a musical idea repeated through a composition
  393. tilting
    vertical movement of the camera from a fixed position
  394. timbre
    the "color" of a tone, meaning which instrument plays it; the color or quality of the musical sound being produced
  395. title cards
    explanatory printed text on cards inserted into a film
  396. toccata
    musical style that allows the performer to present variations on a stated theme and display virtuosity
  397. tonal music
    music that is written in a specific key
  398. Tone
    the basic element of music, also called a note; it is used to construct a melody
  399. tone
    a single note of a definite frequency
  400. Torah
    the Hebrew Bible
  401. tracking shot
    camera shot that moves directly toward or away from the subject or alongside the subject through the use of a rolling platform called a dolly
  402. tragedy
    a drama with a unpleasant ending, generally involving the downfall of a flawed protagonist, which often involves catharsis
  403. tragic flaw
    a defect in the hero's character
  404. Transcendentalism
    philosophical movement during the Romantic era that emphasized feeling over reason and the role of the individual finding an intuitive relation to the universe through solitude amid nature
  405. Trompe l'oeil
    a style of painting that creates the optical illusion of three dimensionality
  406. turning point
    a moment in the drama where the main character must make a crucial decision, one which will determine his fate; also called the crisis
  407. Unities
    neoclassical requirements for theater: unity of time; unity of place; and unity of action
  408. Unity
    when all elements in a work of art give a sense of oneness or self-contained completeness
  409. universal values
    common values or ethical beliefs required for a society or community to survive and function that apply across all cultures
  410. Utilitarianism
    ethical theory that the greatest good for the greatest number should be the only criterion for moral decisions
  411. Value
    the relative lightness or darkness of color
  412. Variation
    how often an element is used and the relationship of one element to another
  413. variation
    an instrumental work that employs the technique of presenting a musical idea (usually a melody) and subjecting it to a succession of elaborations or modifications where the listener can recognize it from one repetition to the next
  414. Vedas
    ancient Hindu sacred writings
  415. Veil of Ignorance
    mental device to enable individuals to develop a standard of justice while remaining ignorant of their own place in or value in this imagined society
  416. Venus figurines
    Paleolithic art objects depicting women with exaggerated hips and breasts; thought to be portable fertility totems.
  417. verisimilitude
    the appearance of truth or reality in theater (stage set, dialogue, etc.)
  418. Victorian photography
    photography in the 19th century that experimented with realistic portraits and images of literary and biblical scenes
  419. virtue
    the quality of doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong
  420. Virtue Ethics
    ethical system that emphasizes moral character and development of the virtues as a basis for moral action
  421. virtuoso
    a dancer who performs with great expertise or technical ability
  422. Watercolor
    a vivid water-based paint, usually applied to paper, with outstanding brilliance and translucence; also, term for resulting artwork
  423. Weathering
    the effect of the weather/environment on the surface of an artwork
  424. wipe
    a gradual transition from one image to another, accomplished by the movement of a border, edge, or shape (such as a vertical bar or an expanding circle) between the images
  425. world music
    term for global music (generally non-Western) that is "discovered" by Western audiences
  426. wu wei
    Daoist concept of following one's true nature and living such that one's deeds are natural, effortless, and moral
  427. Zen Buddhism
    Buddhist school found primarily in China, Japan and Korea that seeks enlightenment through meditation and the development of mental and spiritual discipline