# Introduction to Logic Exam 1

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1. What does an A statement look like?
All S is P
2. What does an E statement look like?
No S is P
3. What does an I statement look like?
Some S is P
4. What does an O statement look like?
Some S is P
5. What determines the quality of a statement?
Affirmative vs negative
6. What determines the quantity of a statement?
Universal vs particular
7. What are contraries?
• A & E
• Both of them cannot be true
8. What are subalterns?
• A & I
• E & O
• If the universal is true, the corresponding particular is true
9. What are subcontraries?
• A & I
• Both of them cannot be false
• A & O
• E & I
• If one is true, the other must be false & vice versa
11. How do you find the conversion of a statement?
• Switch the subject and predicate terms
• Ex: "All cats are animals" → "All animals are cats" (invalid)
• Ex: "Some cats are animals" → "Some animals are cats" (valid)
12. How do you find the obversion of a statement?
• Change the quality of the statement
• Substitute the complement of the predicate in place of the predicate
• Ex: "All cats are animals" → "No cats are non animals"
• Ex: "Some cats are not red" → "Some cats are non red"
13. How do you find the contraposition of a statement?
• Switch the subject and predicate terms
• Substitute the compliment for each
• Ex: "All circles are figures" → "All non figures are non circles"
14. Which types of sentences carry through the validity in its converse?
• E: No S is P
• I: Some S is P
15. Which types of sentences carry through the validity in its obverse?
• A: All S is P
• E: No S is P
• I: Some S is P
• O: Some S is not P
16. Which types of sentences carry through the validity in its contrapositive?
• A: All S is P
• O: Some S is not P
17. What is a major term?
• In a syllogism, the predicate of the conclusion
• Also appears in the major premise
18. What is a minor term?
• In a syllogism, the subject of the conclusion
• Also appears in the minor premise
19. What is a middle term?
In a syllogism, occurs in each premise
20. What is the standard form of a syllogism?
• Major premise
• Minor premise
• Conclusion
21. What justifies a valid argument?
If the premises are true, the conclusion must be true
22. What is the mood?
The types of sentences used in the order in which they appear
23. What is the figure?
The positioning of the middle term
24. What justifies a sound argument?
If it is a valid argument with true premises, then it is a sound argument
25. What does figure 1 look like?
• M P
• S M
• S P
26. What does figure 2 look like?
• P M
• S M
• S P
27. What does figure 3 look like?
• M P
• M S
• S P
28. What does figure 4 look like?
• P M
• M S
• S P
29. What are the rules of the "Six-Rule" Test?
• Rule 1: A syllogism must have exactly three terms
• Rule 2: The middle term must be distributed at least once
• Rule 3: If a term is distributed in the conclusion, it must be distributed in the premise in which it occurs
• Rule 4: There cannot be two negative premises
• Rule 5: There can be a negative premise if and only if there is a negative conclusion & vice versa
• Rule 6: There cannot be two universal premises and a particular conclusion
30. Define force as an informal fallacy
To threaten someone instead of giving reasons in order to force him/her to accept a conclusion
31. Define Ad Hominem as an informal fallacy
To ignore reasons given for a conclusion and directs the attack against the author of those reasons
32. Define ignorance as an informal fallacy
• To conclude that something is false if no one knows that it is true
• To conclude that something is true if no one knows that it is false
33. Define pity as an informal fallacy
• Pleas to ignore a rational principle
• Ex: I should be awarded first place, even though I finished last, because I have short legs
34. Define masses as an informal fallacy
To appeal to the majority
35. Define authority as an informal fallacy
To appeal to authority as the final reason for accepting a conclusion
36. Define hasty generalization as an informal fallacy
To draw general conclusions from too little evidence
37. Define false cause as an informal fallacy
• To give the wrong explanation for the occurrence of an event
• Ex: It is raining because someone danced for it
• Ex: Bad luck came along because of the black cat
38. Define Petitio Principii as an informal fallacy
To have an argument in which the premises of every valid deductive argument "contain" its conclusion
39. Define complex question as an informal fallacy
• To ask several questions with a single sentence
• Ex: "When did you stop beating your wife?" is at least four questions:
• 1) Do you have a wife?
• 2) Do you beat your wife?
• 3) Did you stop beating your wife?
• 4) When did you stop?
40. Define equivocation as an informal fallacy
• Same as Rule 1 of the Six-Rule test
• Ex: "No news is good news. Rape, murder, and arson are no news; therefore, rape, murder, and arson are good news"
41. Define composition as an informal fallacy
To reason that a whole has a characteristic because each of its parts has that characteristic
42. Define division as an informal fallacy
To claim that each of the parts has a characteristic because the whole does
43. What are the two parts of a definition?
• Definiendum
• Definiens
44. Define definiendum
The concept being analyzed in a definition
45. Define definiens
The concepts in the analysis in a definition
46. What is a definition?
An analysis of a complex concept
47. What are the three fundamental kinds of definition?
• Stipulative definition
• Dictionary definition
• Real definition
48. What is a stipulative definition?
A definition in which emotions are influenced
49. What is a dictionary definition?
• Also called a lexical definition
• These definitions are correct if they accurately reflect common usage
50. When are real definitions correct?
They're only correct if the analysis of concepts reflects accurately what we find in nature
51. What is a vague definition?
A sentence whose application is often in doubt
52. What is an ambiguous definition?
A sentence that has several distinct senses

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 Author: Anonymous ID: 259704 Filename: Introduction to Logic Exam 1 Updated: 2014-02-02 01:21:52 Tags: SUNY Geneseo Introduction Logic Phil111 Folders: Description: Intro to Logic stuff Show Answers:

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