Introduction to Logic Exam 1

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Anonymous
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259704
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Introduction to Logic Exam 1
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2014-02-01 20:21:52
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SUNY Geneseo Introduction Logic Phil111
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Intro to Logic stuff
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  1. What does an A statement look like?
    All S is P
  2. What does an E statement look like?
    No S is P
  3. What does an I statement look like?
    Some S is P
  4. What does an O statement look like?
    Some S is P
  5. What determines the quality of a statement?
    Affirmative vs negative
  6. What determines the quantity of a statement?
    Universal vs particular
  7. What are contraries?
    • A & E
    • Both of them cannot be true
  8. What are subalterns?
    • A & I
    • E & O
    • If the universal is true, the corresponding particular is true
  9. What are subcontraries?
    • A & I
    • Both of them cannot be false
  10. What are contradictories?
    • A & O
    • E & I
    • If one is true, the other must be false & vice versa
  11. How do you find the conversion of a statement?
    • Switch the subject and predicate terms
    • Ex: "All cats are animals" → "All animals are cats" (invalid)
    • Ex: "Some cats are animals" → "Some animals are cats" (valid)
  12. How do you find the obversion of a statement?
    • Change the quality of the statement
    • Substitute the complement of the predicate in place of the predicate
    • Ex: "All cats are animals" → "No cats are non animals"
    • Ex: "Some cats are not red" → "Some cats are non red"
  13. How do you find the contraposition of a statement?
    • Switch the subject and predicate terms
    • Substitute the compliment for each
    • Ex: "All circles are figures" → "All non figures are non circles"
  14. Which types of sentences carry through the validity in its converse?
    • E: No S is P
    • I: Some S is P
  15. Which types of sentences carry through the validity in its obverse?
    • A: All S is P
    • E: No S is P
    • I: Some S is P
    • O: Some S is not P
  16. Which types of sentences carry through the validity in its contrapositive?
    • A: All S is P
    • O: Some S is not P
  17. What is a major term?
    • In a syllogism, the predicate of the conclusion
    • Also appears in the major premise
  18. What is a minor term?
    • In a syllogism, the subject of the conclusion
    • Also appears in the minor premise
  19. What is a middle term?
    In a syllogism, occurs in each premise
  20. What is the standard form of a syllogism?
    • Major premise
    • Minor premise
    • Conclusion
  21. What justifies a valid argument?
    If the premises are true, the conclusion must be true
  22. What is the mood?
    The types of sentences used in the order in which they appear
  23. What is the figure?
    The positioning of the middle term
  24. What justifies a sound argument?
    If it is a valid argument with true premises, then it is a sound argument
  25. What does figure 1 look like?
    • M P
    • S M
    • S P
  26. What does figure 2 look like?
    • P M
    • S M
    • S P
  27. What does figure 3 look like?
    • M P
    • M S
    • S P
  28. What does figure 4 look like?
    • P M
    • M S
    • S P
  29. What are the rules of the "Six-Rule" Test?
    • Rule 1: A syllogism must have exactly three terms
    • Rule 2: The middle term must be distributed at least once
    • Rule 3: If a term is distributed in the conclusion, it must be distributed in the premise in which it occurs
    • Rule 4: There cannot be two negative premises
    • Rule 5: There can be a negative premise if and only if there is a negative conclusion & vice versa
    • Rule 6: There cannot be two universal premises and a particular conclusion
  30. Define force as an informal fallacy
    To threaten someone instead of giving reasons in order to force him/her to accept a conclusion
  31. Define Ad Hominem as an informal fallacy
    To ignore reasons given for a conclusion and directs the attack against the author of those reasons
  32. Define ignorance as an informal fallacy
    • To conclude that something is false if no one knows that it is true
    • To conclude that something is true if no one knows that it is false
  33. Define pity as an informal fallacy
    • Pleas to ignore a rational principle
    • Ex: I should be awarded first place, even though I finished last, because I have short legs
  34. Define masses as an informal fallacy
    To appeal to the majority
  35. Define authority as an informal fallacy
    To appeal to authority as the final reason for accepting a conclusion
  36. Define hasty generalization as an informal fallacy
    To draw general conclusions from too little evidence
  37. Define false cause as an informal fallacy
    • To give the wrong explanation for the occurrence of an event
    • Ex: It is raining because someone danced for it
    • Ex: Bad luck came along because of the black cat
  38. Define Petitio Principii as an informal fallacy
    To have an argument in which the premises of every valid deductive argument "contain" its conclusion
  39. Define complex question as an informal fallacy
    • To ask several questions with a single sentence
    • Ex: "When did you stop beating your wife?" is at least four questions:
    • 1) Do you have a wife?
    • 2) Do you beat your wife?
    • 3) Did you stop beating your wife?
    • 4) When did you stop?
  40. Define equivocation as an informal fallacy
    • Same as Rule 1 of the Six-Rule test
    • Ex: "No news is good news. Rape, murder, and arson are no news; therefore, rape, murder, and arson are good news"
  41. Define composition as an informal fallacy
    To reason that a whole has a characteristic because each of its parts has that characteristic
  42. Define division as an informal fallacy
    To claim that each of the parts has a characteristic because the whole does
  43. What are the two parts of a definition?
    • Definiendum
    • Definiens
  44. Define definiendum
    The concept being analyzed in a definition
  45. Define definiens
    The concepts in the analysis in a definition
  46. What is a definition?
    An analysis of a complex concept
  47. What are the three fundamental kinds of definition?
    • Stipulative definition
    • Dictionary definition
    • Real definition
  48. What is a stipulative definition?
    A definition in which emotions are influenced
  49. What is a dictionary definition?
    • Also called a lexical definition
    • These definitions are correct if they accurately reflect common usage
  50. When are real definitions correct?
    They're only correct if the analysis of concepts reflects accurately what we find in nature
  51. What is a vague definition?
    A sentence whose application is often in doubt
  52. What is an ambiguous definition?
    A sentence that has several distinct senses

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