# Introduction to Logic Exam 1

 The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What does an A statement look like? All S is P What does an E statement look like? No S is P What does an I statement look like? Some S is P What does an O statement look like? Some S is P What determines the quality of a statement? Affirmative vs negative What determines the quantity of a statement? Universal vs particular What are contraries? A & EBoth of them cannot be true What are subalterns? A & IE & OIf the universal is true, the corresponding particular is true What are subcontraries? A & IBoth of them cannot be false What are contradictories? A & OE & IIf one is true, the other must be false & vice versa How do you find the conversion of a statement? Switch the subject and predicate termsEx: "All cats are animals" → "All animals are cats" (invalid)Ex: "Some cats are animals" → "Some animals are cats" (valid) How do you find the obversion of a statement? Change the quality of the statementSubstitute the complement of the predicate in place of the predicateEx: "All cats are animals" → "No cats are non animals"Ex: "Some cats are not red" → "Some cats are non red" How do you find the contraposition of a statement? Switch the subject and predicate termsSubstitute the compliment for eachEx: "All circles are figures" → "All non figures are non circles" Which types of sentences carry through the validity in its converse? E: No S is PI: Some S is P Which types of sentences carry through the validity in its obverse? A: All S is PE: No S is PI: Some S is PO: Some S is not P Which types of sentences carry through the validity in its contrapositive? A: All S is PO: Some S is not P What is a major term? In a syllogism, the predicate of the conclusionAlso appears in the major premise What is a minor term? In a syllogism, the subject of the conclusionAlso appears in the minor premise What is a middle term? In a syllogism, occurs in each premise What is the standard form of a syllogism? Major premiseMinor premiseConclusion What justifies a valid argument? If the premises are true, the conclusion must be true What is the mood? The types of sentences used in the order in which they appear What is the figure? The positioning of the middle term What justifies a sound argument? If it is a valid argument with true premises, then it is a sound argument What does figure 1 look like? M PS MS P What does figure 2 look like? P MS MS P What does figure 3 look like? M PM SS P What does figure 4 look like? P MM SS P What are the rules of the "Six-Rule" Test? Rule 1: A syllogism must have exactly three termsRule 2: The middle term must be distributed at least onceRule 3: If a term is distributed in the conclusion, it must be distributed in the premise in which it occursRule 4: There cannot be two negative premisesRule 5: There can be a negative premise if and only if there is a negative conclusion & vice versaRule 6: There cannot be two universal premises and a particular conclusion Define force as an informal fallacy To threaten someone instead of giving reasons in order to force him/her to accept a conclusion Define Ad Hominem as an informal fallacy To ignore reasons given for a conclusion and directs the attack against the author of those reasons Define ignorance as an informal fallacy To conclude that something is false if no one knows that it is trueTo conclude that something is true if no one knows that it is false Define pity as an informal fallacy Pleas to ignore a rational principleEx: I should be awarded first place, even though I finished last, because I have short legs Define masses as an informal fallacy To appeal to the majority Define authority as an informal fallacy To appeal to authority as the final reason for accepting a conclusion Define hasty generalization as an informal fallacy To draw general conclusions from too little evidence Define false cause as an informal fallacy To give the wrong explanation for the occurrence of an eventEx: It is raining because someone danced for itEx: Bad luck came along because of the black cat Define Petitio Principii as an informal fallacy To have an argument in which the premises of every valid deductive argument "contain" its conclusion Define complex question as an informal fallacy To ask several questions with a single sentenceEx: "When did you stop beating your wife?" is at least four questions:1) Do you have a wife?2) Do you beat your wife?3) Did you stop beating your wife?4) When did you stop? Define equivocation as an informal fallacy Same as Rule 1 of the Six-Rule testEx: "No news is good news. Rape, murder, and arson are no news; therefore, rape, murder, and arson are good news" Define composition as an informal fallacy To reason that a whole has a characteristic because each of its parts has that characteristic Define division as an informal fallacy To claim that each of the parts has a characteristic because the whole does What are the two parts of a definition? DefiniendumDefiniens Define definiendum The concept being analyzed in a definition Define definiens The concepts in the analysis in a definition What is a definition? An analysis of a complex concept What are the three fundamental kinds of definition? Stipulative definitionDictionary definitionReal definition What is a stipulative definition? A definition in which emotions are influenced What is a dictionary definition? Also called a lexical definitionThese definitions are correct if they accurately reflect common usage When are real definitions correct? They're only correct if the analysis of concepts reflects accurately what we find in nature What is a vague definition? A sentence whose application is often in doubt What is an ambiguous definition? A sentence that has several distinct senses AuthorAnonymous ID259704 Card SetIntroduction to Logic Exam 1 DescriptionIntro to Logic stuff Updated2014-02-02T01:21:52Z Show Answers