Terminology

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Author:
jablojimski
ID:
259728
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Terminology
Updated:
2014-02-02 00:10:58
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terms vocab
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Terms used in Stonemasonry
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  1. Aggregate
    Crushed, sharp-edged quarried stone, such as 3/8 in. (1cm) pea gravel and larger pieces upto 1.5in. (3.8cm), used in congrete mixtures and road bond. Larger aggregate, such as railroad ballast, is 2.5 in (6.4cm) and mades goodbase for pathsindamp, boggy soil. Also good for filling driveway potholes.
  2. Anchors (or deadmen)
    Long stones set randomly in retaining walls, lengths positioned across, not along, length of wall. Back ends extend into gravel backfill, anchoring the wall.
  3. Ashlar
    Quarried stone cut to specific dimensions and laid in deliberate patterns with consistent mortar joints.
  4. Berm
    Raised bank of soil. Can also be mound of earth placed against wall of building to provide protection or insulation.
  5. Bond stones
    Stones that break vertical joints, exten well into a wall in order to give structural integrity to stonework.
  6. Boulder
    Any rock too heavy for one person to lift by hand.
  7. Capstones
    Uppermost stones laid on wall (laid horizontally), often used to finish wall and protect stonework.
  8. Chinking stones
    Small stones or broken pieces used to fill in gaps in wide joints between larger stones.
  9. Coping stones
    Uppermost stones on wall, often set atop capstone course. Used on freestanding and retaining walls and are vertically set in a series that's either plumb or at a slight angle (15 degrees).
  10. Corbel
    Cantilevered stone supported at only one end. Often stacked two ormore on top of one another, stepping out as they rise.
  11. Cornerstones
    Stacked at wall ends and set at outside corners of coursed stonework. Have two faces 90 degrees from each other.
  12. Courses
    Horizontal layers of stones in any mortared or dry-stacked stone wall.
  13. Crushed stone
    Quarried stone, such as pea gravel or larger aggregates.
  14. Dimensional stone
    Stone that's quarried and cut to exact size/shape. Granite, marble, limstone are common ones used in architectural stonework.
  15. Dressed stone
    Deminstional stone that has had particular texture, mmotif, or pattern worked on the stone's face.
  16. Face
    Surface chosen to be exposed when set into vertical stonework, like a wall.
  17. Fieldstones
    Found loose on ground or embedded in soil. Often appear mysteriously each spring as frozen ground pushes them to surface. Can use them as stepping stones, pavers, and wall stones. Weathered fieldstone is preferred many times in boulderscaping and stones set in Japanese-style gardens.
  18. Flagstone
    Also referred to as flagging, any stone used for paving, including fieldstone, random or cut sandstone,and slate.
  19. Glacial erratics
    Stones that wandered from place of origin by glacial movement.
  20. Gravel (washed crushed stone)
    3/8 to 1.5 (1 to 3.8cm) crushed stone.
  21. Hearting
    Process of filling core of dry stacked wall with small stones and rock chips until every space is packed tightly.
  22. Igneous rock
    Rock formed from reservoirs of molten lava made up of crystallized minerals. Solidifiesat Earth's surface or by extreme pressure below earth. Granite is preeminent igneous rock, noted for hardness and lasting qualities.
  23. Joint
    Space between any two stones in a stone structure. Horizonatal joints between courses of stonework and vertical joints between stones in each course.
  24. Metamorphic rock
    Stone that was originally igneous or sedimentary but has changed in appearance or character through natural forces of heat, pressure, and water. Granite could become gneiss; limestone could recrystallize into marble; shale might be transformed by pressure into slate.
  25. Pea gravel
    Small, round, smooth stones dredged from rivers. Often small, 3/8in crushed quarry is also called pea gravel.
  26. Plumb
    Means a wall is exactly vertical.
  27. Quarried stone
    Stone that's been cut, broken, or blasted from bedrock. Large blanks, weighting up to 15 tons are then split, sawed, and broken into building, paving, and dimensional cut stone.
  28. Quoin stone
    Dimensionally cut cornerstone used for wall ends and window and door openings.
  29. River rocks
    Rocks that have been rounded by relentless force of water.
  30. River slicks
    Small, mostly flat stones with rounded edges and smooth surfaces.
  31. Rock
    Any naturally formed solidmaterial made of Earth's crust or petrified matter.
  32. Rock dust
    Screening from wahsed and sieved crushed stone, such as pea gravel (also called quarry screening).
  33. Road bond (ABC or crusher run)
    Mixture of crushed stone, 3/8 to 1.5in in size, and rock dust, which binds mixture together. Commonly used to build dirt roads or as base for paved roads. It compacts well and is good for building up low spots in paving projects.
  34. Rubble stones
    Irregularly shaped stones withoutobviousfaces. Rubble stones are best used as backfill behind retaining walls and rough mortared stonework.
  35. Running joint
    Occurs when jointsin seriesofcourses fall along same vertical line, creating weak spot in stonework.
  36. Sedimentary stone
    Created by settling of layers of sediments deposited at bottom of body of water, such as ocean or lake. The layers, referred to as strata, vary from afractionof an inch to 10ft in thickness, with pressure and heat forming the stone. Limestone and sandstone are ex.
  37. Shim stones
    Small, thin, relatively flat stones used to adjust overall height of larger stones.
  38. Stone
    Rock that's been shaped by natural forces or by human persuasion, including natural weathered stone, river stone, building stone, millstones, and cobblestones.
  39. Stretchers
    Stones with long, horizontal faces and usually used to lay on top of smaller stones in course beneath them in order to break several joints with one stone.
  40. Talus (Scree)
    Mass of broken stones and boulders that accumulates at base of cliff or mountain slope.
  41. Through or tie stones
    Stones that have length equal to or slightly longer than width of freestanding wall. Laid across width of wall at regular intervals every 3 ft, midway in the wall's height in order to provide extra structural integrity.
  42. Wedges
    Small tapered bits of stone used to level larger stones, either from front to back or side to side. Whenever you trim stones, save the broken-off pieces, especially tapered ones, to serve as wedges.

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