Lab Practical 1

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Lab Practical 1
2014-02-18 00:20:29
Study Guide

Study Guide
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  1. abdominal
    pertaining to the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
  2. acromial
    pertaining to the point of the shoulder
  3. antebrachial
    pertaining to the forearm
  4. antecubital
    pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow
  5. axillary
    pertaining to the armpit
  6. brachial
    pertaining to the arm
  7. buccal
    pertaining to the cheek
  8. carparl
    pertaining to the wrist
  9. cephalic
    pertaining to the head
  10. cervical
    pertaining to the neck region
  11. coxal
    pertaining to the hip
  12. crural
    pertaining to the leg
  13. digital
    pertaining to the fingers or toes
  14. femoral
    pertaining to the thigh
  15. fibular (peroneal)
    pertaining to the side of the leg
  16. frontal
    pertaining to the forehead
  17. hallux
    pertaining to the great toe
  18. inguinal
    pertaining to the groin
  19. mammary
    pertaining to the breast
  20. manus
    pertaining to the hand
  21. mental
    pertaining to the chin
  22. nasal
    pertaining to the nose
  23. oral
    pertaining to the mouth
  24. orbital
    pertaining to the bony eye socket (orbit)
  25. palmar
    pertaining to the palm of the hand
  26. patellar
    pertaining to the anterior knee (kneecap) region
  27. pedal
    pertaining to the foot
  28. pelvic
    pertaining to the pelvis region
  29. pollex
    pertaining to the thumb
  30. pubic
    pertaining to the genital region
  31. sternal
    pertaining to the region of the breastbone
  32. tarsal
    pertaining to the ankle
  33. thoracic
    pertaining to the chest
  34. umbilical
    pertaining to the navel
  35. calcaneal
    pertaining to the heel of the foot
  36. dorsum
    pertaining to the back
  37. gluteal
    pertaining to the buttocks or rump
  38. lumbar
    pertaining to the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin
  39. occipital
    pertaining to the posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull
  40. olecranal
    pertaining to the posterior aspect of the elbow
  41. otic
    pertaining to the ear
  42. perineal
    pertaining to the region between the anus and external genitalia
  43. plantar
    pertaining to the sole of the foot
  44. popliteal
    pertaining to the back of the knee
  45. sacral
    pertaining to the region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)
  46. scapular
    pertaining to the scapula or shoulder blade area
  47. sural
    pertaining to the calf or posterior surface of the leg
  48. vertebral
    pertaining to the area of the spinal column
  49. superior
  50. inferior
  51. anterior
  52. posterior
  53. medial
    toward the midline
  54. lateral
    away from the midline or median plane
  55. cephalad (cranial)
    toward the head
  56. caudal
    toward the tail
  57. dorsal
  58. ventral
    belly side
  59. proximal
    nearer the trunk or attached end
  60. distal
    farther from the trunk or point of attachment
  61. superficial (external)
    toward or at the body surface
  62. deep (internal)
    away from the body surface
  63. sagittal plane
    runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and left part
  64. median or midsagittal plane
    divides the body into equal parts, right down the midline of the body
  65. front plane
    coronal plane, divides the body (or an organ) into anterior and posterior parts
  66. transverse plane
    divides the body into superior and inferior parts
  67. cross sections
    sections along the transverse plane
  68. dorsal body cavity
    subdivided into the cranial cavity and vertebral (or spinal cavity)
  69. cranial cavity
    in which the brain is enclosed within the rigid skull
  70. vertebral (or spinal) cavity
    within which the delicate spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column
  71. ventral body cavity
    subdivides into thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, and pelvic cavity
  72. thoracic cavity
    is separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm
  73. abdominopelvic cavity
    refers to the cavity inferior to the diaphragm
  74. abdominal cavity
    a superior area that houses the stomach, intestines, liver, and other organs.
  75. pelvic cavity
    an inferior region that is partially enclosed by the bony pelvis and contains the reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum
  76. serosa, or serous membrane
    the walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered with an exceedingly thin, double-layered membrane
  77. parietal serosa
    refers to the part of the membrane lining the cavity walls
  78. visceral serosa
    covers the external surface of the organs within the cavity
  79. peritoneum
    refers to the serosa lining the abdominal cavity and coerving its organs
  80. pelura
    enclose the lungs
  81. right hypochondriac region
    liver and gallbladder
  82. left hypochondriac region
  83. right lumbar region
    ascending colon of large intestine
  84. epigastric region
  85. umbilical region
    small intestine and transverse colon of large intestine
  86. left lumbar region
    descending colon of large intestine
  87. right iliac (inguinal) region
    cecum and appendix
  88. hypogastric (pubic) region
    urinary bladder
  89. left iliac (inguinal) region
    inital part of sigmoid colon
  90. pericardium
    around the heart

  91. Name of Tissue Subtype ?
    Description ?
    Function ?
    Location ?
    • Name: Simple squamous epithelium
    • Description: Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm; the simplest of the epithelia
    • Function: Allows material to pass by diffusion and fliration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae.
    • Location: Kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels; lining of ventral body cavity (serosae).

  92. Name of Tissue Subtype ?
    Description ?
    Function ?
    Location ?
    • Name: Simple cubodial epithelium
    • Description: Single layer of cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei
    • Function: Secretion and absorption
    • Location: Kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface

  93. Name of Tissue Subtype ?
    Description ?
    Function ?
    Location ?
    • Name: Simple columnar epithelium
    • Description: Single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei; some cells bear cilia; layer may contain mucus-secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells)
    • Function: Absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; cilicated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliary action
    • Location: digestive tract, gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands; small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of uterus

  94. Name of Tissue Subtype ?
    Description ?
    Function ?
    Location ?
    • Name: Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    • Description: Single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain mucus-secreting cells and bear cilia
    • Function: Secretes substances, particularly mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
    • Location: trachea; most of the upper respiratory tract; male's sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands

  95. Name of Tissue Subtype ?
    Description ?
    Function ?
    Location ?
    • Name: Stratified squamous epithelium
    • Description: Thick membrane composed of several cell layers; basal cells are cubodial or columnar and metabolically active; surface cells are flattened (squamous); in the keratinized type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead; basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers
    • Function: Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion
    • Location: esophagus, mouth, and vagina; epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane

  96. Name of Tissue Subtype ?
    Description ?
    Function ?
    Location ?
    • Name: Transitional epithelium
    • Description: Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surface cells dome shaped or squamouslike, depending on degree of organ stretch
    • Function: Stretches readily, permits stored urine to distend urinary organ
    • Location: ureters, bladder, and part of the urethra

  97. Name of Tissue Subtype ?
    Description ?
    Function ?
    Location ?
    • Name: Loose connective tissue; areolar
    • Description: Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types; cells; fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells and some white blood cells
    • Function: wraps and cushions organs
    • Location: surround capillary

  98. Name of Tissue Subtype ?
    Description ?
    Function ?
    Location ?
    • Name: loose connective tissue; adipose
    • Description: Matrix as in areolar, but very sparse; closely parked adipocytes, or fat cells, have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplet.
    • Function: provides reserve fuel; insulates against heat loss; supports and protects organs.
    • Location: under the skin; around kidneys and eyeballs; within abdomen; in breasts.

  99. Name of Tissue Subtype ?
    Description ?
    Function ?
    Location ?
    • Name: Loose connective tissue; reticular
    • Description: Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance; reticular cells lie on the network
    • Function: support other cell types such as WBCs, mast cells and macrophages
    • Location: lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen)
  100. General functions of the skin as an organ
    • - to insulate and cushion the underlying body tissues
    • - to protect the entire body from mechancial damage (bumps and cuts), chemical damage (acids, alkalis, and the like), thermal damage (heat), and bacterial invasion (by virtue of its acid mantle and continuous surface)
    • - The hardened uppermost layer of the skin (cornified layer) prevents water loss from the body surface.
    • - The skin's abundant capillary network (under the control of the nervous system) plays an important role in regulating heat loss from the body surface.
  101. Keratinocytes
    the most abundant epidermal cells and tightly connected to each other by desmosomes, to produce keratin fibrils.
  102. keratin
    a fibrous protein that gives the epidermis its durability and protective capabilities.
  103. Melanocytes
    spidery black cells that produce the brown-to-black pigment called melanin, to provide a protective pigment umbrella over the nuclei of the cells in the deeper epidermal layers
  104. epidermal dendritic cells
    aka Langerhans cells, play a role in immunity
  105. base
    to suppose the microscope
  106. substage light or mirror
    to pass the light directly upward through the microscope
  107. stage
    to permit light to pass through both it and the specimen
  108. condenser
    to concentrate the light on the specimen
  109. iris diaphragm lever
    to regulate the amount of light passing through the condenser and permit the best possible contrast when viewing the specimen
  110. coarse adjustment knob
    to focus on the specimen
  111. fine adjustment knob
    to use for precise focusing once coarse focusing has been completed
  112. head or body tube
    to support the objective lens system and the ocular lens or lenses
  113. arm
    vertical portion of the microscope connecting the base and head
  114. ocular
    to increase the apparent size of the object by ten times or ten diameters
  115. nosepiece
    to change the objective lenses
  116. objective lenses
    to permit the use of a scanning lens, a low-power lens, a high power lens, or an oil immersion lens
  117. resolution
    the ability to discriminate two close objects as separate, is not