Psyc 331: Chapter 3 - Social Cognition

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athorne
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259733
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Psyc 331: Chapter 3 - Social Cognition
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2014-02-01 23:50:58
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social cognition
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  1. SCHEMA
    an automatically created cognitive framework that helps guide the way we think about and understand the society around us
  2. PRIME
    to activate a schema through a stimulus
  3. PERSEVERANCE EFFECT
    the tendency for a schema to remain intact, even when it comes up against discrediting information
  4. STEREOTYPE
    a type of schema in which we apply generalized information to an individual based on the group to which he or she belongs
  5. SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY
    a prediction that causes itself to come true
  6. SELECTIVE FILTERING
    paying more attention to sensory information that fits a given schema, at the same time filtering out information that is inconsistent
  7. AUTOMATIC PROCESSING
    • the processing of information "on the fly"
    • using schemas as shortcuts
  8. CONTROLLED PROCESSING
    a type of mental processing that takes purposeful thought and effort as decisions or courses of action are weighed carefully
  9. LIMBIC SYSTEM
    the area of the brain thought to be crucial to emotional processing and memory
  10. AMYGDALA
    a small structure found in the medial temporal lobe of the brain's limbic system that is involved in automatic processing and emotion
  11. PREFRONTAL CORTEX
    the part of the brain that plays a role in higher- order thinking, including judgment, decision making, and evaluation
  12. HEURISTICS
    simple rules that reduce mental effort and allow us to make decisions or judgments quickly
  13. AVAILABILITY HEURISTIC
    a rule used to estimate the likelihood of a given occurrence based on how easily one can recall an example of that occurrence
  14. REPRESENTATIVENESS HEURISTIC
    a rule used to estimate the likelihood of an event based on how well it fits with your expectations of a model for that event
  15. BASE RATE FALLACY
    an erroneous conclusion reached when the representativeness heuristic is used to draw a conclusion without consider- ing the base rate
  16. ANCHORING AND ADJUSTMENT HEURISTIC
    a heuristic in which we use a number as a starting point on which to anchor our judgment
  17. FRAMING HEURISTIC
    a rule that guides decision making based on the framework in which a situation or item is presented
  18. ILLUSION OF CONTROL
    the perception of uncontrollable events as being controllable
  19. NEGATIVITY BIAS
    the tendency for people to be more sensitive to and more likely to notice and remember negative information, which then influences the evaluation of people and situations
  20. OPTIMISTIC BIAS
    the belief that bad things will happen to other people and that an individual is more likely to experience good things in life
  21. OVERCONFIDENCE BARRIER
    a state of having more confidence in one's judgment or control over a situation than is really justified
  22. COUNTERFACTUAL THINKING
    the tendency to imagine alternative outcomes for an event
  23. MOOD CONGRUENCE EFFECT
    the fact that we are more likely to remember positive information when in a positive mood, and negative information when in a negative mood
  24. MOOD DEPENDENT MEMORY
    the fact that the mood that we are in when we learn information may serve as a retrieval cue when we try to remember that information

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