Psyc 331: Chapter 4 - The Self

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athorne
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259734
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Psyc 331: Chapter 4 - The Self
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2014-02-01 23:51:54
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psyc chapter 331 exam
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the self
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  1. SELF-CONCEPT
    your mental representation of yourself
  2. SELF-SCHEMA
    beliefs about aspects of your identity that organize the processing of information related to the self
  3. SELF-EFFICACY
    a person's belief in one's ability to achieve certain goals
  4. TWENTY STATEMENTS TEST (TST)
    a measure of self-concept that asks individuals to self-report "who am I?"
  5. INTROSPECTION
    the process of thinking about your own thoughts
  6. SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY
    a theory in which we develop our identity from our group memberships
  7. INDIVIDUALISM
    at the cultural level, focus on the self as independent from others and defining individual goals over the collective
  8. COLLECTIVISM
    a cultural focus on the self as interdependent and defined by the connectedness of people to one another, in particular, the people closest to them
  9. AFFECTIVE FORECASTING
    the process of predicting the impact future events will have on our overall emotional states
  10. SELF-DISCREPANCY THEORY
    a theory in which our concepts of self are influenced by how close our actual selves are to the selves we would like to be
  11. SELF-AWARENESS
    when attention is brought about on the self; for example, looking in a mirror, standing in front of a crowd, and listening to a recording of your voice
  12. SELF-ESTEEM
    a person's evaluation of his or her self-worth
  13. SELF-PERCEPTION THEORY
    a theory in which, if we are unsure of the attitudes we hold, we look to our behaviour and use that to make inferences about our attitudes, much like an outside observer
  14. FACIAL FEEDBACK HYPOTHESIS
    a hypothesis that states that a change in our facial expressions can lead to a subsequent emotional change
  15. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
    the drive to perform an action because we enjoy it and are likely to engage in it more fully and with greater curiosity and pleasure
  16. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
    the drive to perform an action in response to an external pressure or obligation, to avoid punishment, or to achieve some outside benefit
  17. ATTRIBUTION
    deciding who or what is responsible for the outcome of a situation; another way we cope with failure and respond to success in order to maintain self-esteem
  18. SELF-SERVING ATTRIBUTION
    a self-protection strategy in which we are likely to believe that external factors are responsible for situations in which we perform poorly
  19. UNREALISTIC OPTIMISM
    when we tend to imagine that the outcomes of situations will be better for us than for other people
  20. SOCIAL COMPARISON THEORY
    a theory wherein we compare ourselves to others in different situations because there is no given standard against which to measure our abilities and opinions
  21. DOWNWARD SOCIAL COMPARISON
    the process of comparing yourself to someone who is less capable or worse off than you are
  22. BIRGING
    • "basking in reflected glory,"
    • a strategy by which we reinforce our positive self-concepts by identifying ourselves with successful others
  23. CORFING
    • "cutting off reflective failure,"
    • a strategy by which we try to disassociate ourselves from others who have failed or behaved poorly
  24. SELF-HANDICAPPING
    a process that involves setting up an obstacle before engaging in a task as a way to give ourselves a ready-made excuse in case we don't perform well
  25. INGRATIATION
    a way of controlling others' impressions of us through flattery
  26. SPOTLIGHT EFFECT
    the belief that our behaviour, our appearance, and even our internal states are obvious to others
  27. SELF-VERIFICATION THEORY
    a theory wherein we want others to see us as we see ourselves--even when our self-concepts are negative
  28. SELF-MONITORING
    • the process through which people regulate their behaviour to be perceived well by others
    • low self-monitors act consistently across situations, acting according to their personal views
    • high self-monitors are constantly monitoring their behaviour and adjusting their reactions to fit the situation they are in

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