Psyc 331: Chapter 5 - Social Perception

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athorne
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259735
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Psyc 331: Chapter 5 - Social Perception
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2014-02-01 23:52:52
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psyc 331 chapter exam
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social perception
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  1. DISPOSITIONAL ATTRIBUTION
    inferring that a person's traits, something internal, caused his or her behaviour
  2. SITUATIONAL ATTRIBUTION
    inferring that the situation in which a person is in, something external to the person, caused his or her behaviour
  3. CORRESPONDENT INFERENCE THEORY
    the theory that people base their inferences regarding the source of others' behaviours on whether or not the behaviour was freely chosen, if the consequences are distinctive, and if the behaviour was socially desirable
  4. COVARIATION THEORY
    the theory that people base their inferences regarding the source of others' behaviours on whether or not there is a consensus regarding the way one ought to respond, the distinctiveness of the response, and the consistency of the person's response across situations
  5. CORRESPONDENCE BIAS
    • the tendency of people to make dispositional attributions for others' behaviours
    • aka fundamental attribution error
  6. SPONTANEOUS TRAIT INFERENCE
    the process of automatically inferring traits from another person's behaviour
  7. THREE-STAGE MODEL OF ATTRIBUTION
    a model in which an observer automatically characterizes a behaviour, automatically makes a dispositional inference, and then uses conscious effort to correct for situational constraints if the observer has the cognitive capacity to do so
  8. NEED FOR COGNITION
    the need that some individuals have to think, solve problems, and understand their world accurately
  9. ACTOR-OBSERVER EFFECT
    the tendency people have to make dispositional inferences for others' behaviour but situational attributions for their own
  10. BELIEF IN A JUST WORLD
    people have to believe the world is fair and adjust their other beliefs to maintain that stance by concluding that bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people
  11. PRIMACY EFFECT
    the phenomenon whereby the first pieces of information to which we are exposed have the most impact on our judgments
  12. RECENCY EFFECT
    the phenomenon whereby the last pieces of information to which we are exposed have heightened impact on our judgments, relative to information received in the middle
  13. WHAT IS BEAUTIFUL IS GOOD EFFECT
    the phenomenon wherein beautiful things are imbued with positivity and activate positive things in the mind
  14. HALO EFFECT
    when one positive thing is known or believed about a target person, we tend to infer that the individual is positive overall and thus has other positive features
  15. BELIEF PERSEVERANCE
    holding on to one's beliefs, even in the face of contradictory evidence
  16. NONVERBAL CUES
    behaviours, gestures, and expressions that convey thought or emotion without words
  17. SELF-VERIFICATION
    the motivation of an individual for others to know him or her accurately, including his or her negative features

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