Psyc 331: Chapter 6 - Attitudes

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athorne
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259736
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Psyc 331: Chapter 6 - Attitudes
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2014-02-01 23:53:40
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attitudes
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  1. ATTITUDES
    having an evaluative component toward a stimulus that is made up of affective, behavioural, and cognitive information
  2. AMBIVALENCE
    simultaneously experiencing strong contradictory emotions or motivations
  3. IMPLICIT ATTITUDES
    attitudes that are automatically formed and activated without our even being aware of it
  4. EXPLICIT ATTITUDES
    attitudes of which one is aware, and that one can control
  5. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
    a type of learning by which a neutral stimulus gets paired with a stimulus (UCS) that elicits a response (UCR). Through repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus (CS) by itself elicits the response (CR) of the second stimulus
  6. UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (UCS)
    a stimulus that elicits a response automatically, without learning taking place
  7. UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UCR)
    a response that occurs automatically in reaction to some stimulus, without learning taking place
  8. CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS)
    a stimulus that, only by repeated association with a particular unconditioned stimulus, comes to evoke the response associated with the unconditioned stimulus
  9. CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR)
    a learned response to the conditioned stimulus that was previously a neutral stimulus
  10. MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT
    the phenomenon whereby objects become better-liked with exposure--we like things more with which we are familiar
  11. NAME-LETTER EFFECT
    the tendency to show a preference for letters in our own name and prefer stimuli that contain those letters
  12. OPERANT CONDITIONING
    a type of learning in which the frequency of a behaviour is determined by reinforcement and punishment
  13. OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
    acquiring an attitude or behaviour due to the observation of others exhibiting that attitude or behaviour
  14. IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST (IAT)
    test that measures how easily we associate categories with positive or negative attitudes, including measures in categories ranging from racial and religious attitudes to attitudes about presidents
  15. THEORY OF PLANNED behaviour
    the theory that attitudes, social norms, and the perceived control of the individual lead to behaviour
  16. ACCESSIBILITY
    the degree to which a concept is active in our consciousness
  17. CHRONIC ACCESSIBILITY
    accessibility arising from frequent and recent exposure to a construct that has permanence--i.e., it is accessible all of the time
  18. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE
    the anxiety that arises from acting in a way discordant with your attitudes. This anxiety is resolved by adjusting one's attitudes to be in line with the behaviour
  19. POST-DECISION DISSONANCE
    cognitive dissonance that results from having to reject one appealing choice in favour of another
  20. SELF-AFFIRMATION THEORY
    the theory that we are more open to attitudinal change when we have recently been given an opportunity to affirm our core values and identity
  21. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT
    the process by which people either consciously or unconsciously attempt to monitor how they appear to others by regulating the information conveyed about themselves in a social interaction, and thus attitude change is more likely when counter-attitudinal behaviour occurs in public

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