Endocrine 1.txt

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  1. Endocrine glands are
    ductless glands
  2. Hormones go into
    the bloodstream
  3. Hormones are able to recognize their target tissue and exert their action by
    binding to receptors on or within the target tissue cells
  4. Exocrine glands
    release secretions into the GI tract through ducts (sweat glands, salivary glands)
  5. Hypothalamus
    CRH, TRH, GnRH, GHRH, GHIH, PIH, MIH, reproduction and fluid balance
  6. Anterior pituitary
    TSH, ACTH, LH, FSH, prolactin, growth hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone
  7. Posterior pituitary
    vasopression (ADH) and oxytocin
  8. Thyroid
    T3, T4, calcitonin
  9. Parathyroid
    parathyroid hormone
  10. Adrenal cortex
    glucocorticoids (cortisol) and mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
  11. Ovary
    estrogen and progesterone
  12. Testes
  13. Pancreas
    insulin, glucagon, somatostatin
  14. In response to the releasing hormones of the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary
    secretes tropic hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands
  15. Pituitary is also known as the
    master gland
  16. Anterior pituitary controls
    growth, metabolic activity and sexual development
  17. Posterior pituitary controls
    fluid and electrolyte balance (ADH and oxytocin)
  18. Thymus
    responsible for the development of the immune systems T-cells
  19. Thyroid glands follicular cells
    produce T4 and T3
  20. Thyroid parafollicular cells
    produce thyrocalcitonin or calcitonin which help regulate serum calcium levels
  21. If parathyroid is removed,
    insufficiency of calcium; will need to be on calcium supplement
  22. PTH regulates
    Ca and Phos metabolism by acting on the kidneys and the GI tract
  23. Mineralcorticoids help
    control the body’s sodium (intake) and (excrete) potassium content, renal tubular
  24. Aldosterone is the
    major mineralcorticoid
  25. Main glucocorticoid
    cortisol; carb, protein and fat metabolism, body’s response to stress, emotional stability and immune function
  26. Adrenal glands secrete
    Sugar (glucocorticoids), salt (mineralcorticoids) and sex (androgens)
  27. Pancreas alpha cells
    secrete glucagon
  28. Pancreas beta cells
    secrete insulin
  29. Pancreas delta cells
    secrete somatostatin
  30. Insulin…
    pushes glucose which is outside of the cells back into the cell
  31. More stress equals
    more cortisol hence more belly fat; cortisol is essential for life; adrenal cortex
  32. Adrenal medulla
    ANS, release of catecholamines epi and norepi, regulate metabolic pathways, store fuel to meet caloric needs
  33. Adrenal cortex
    without it, circulatory failure
  34. Insulin
    reduce blood glucose
  35. Glucagon
    raise blood glucose by converting glycogen to glucose in the liver
  36. Somatostatin
    interferes with the release of growth hormone from the pituitary and glucagon from the pancreas which raise blood glucose levels
  37. Disorders of the endocrine system are usually related to
    excess of specific hormone, deficiency of specific hormone, receptor defect
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Endocrine 1.txt
2014-02-02 16:31:01

Endocrine 1
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