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What does neuroscience perspective focus on?
how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
What does the evolutionary perspective focus on?
how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of our genes
What does the behavioral genetics perspective focus on?
how much our genes and our enviorment influence out individual differences
What does the psychodynamic perspective focus on?
how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
What does the cognitve perspective focus on?
how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
What does the social- cultural perspective focus on?
how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
What does the humanistc view focus on?
What are empirical statements?
based on experimentation and facutal data
What is comparative psychology?
the branch concerned with the behavior of animals
What is covert behavior?
- not observable
- thinking and imaging
What is overt behavior?
- directly observable
What do Gestalt psychologists believe?
- studies mental processes and behavior
- human eye sees whole picture before details
- whole is greater than the sum of its parts
What are the goals of psychology?
help you understand why people think, feel and act the way they do
What does cognition mean?
- mental processes
- how we encode process,store and retrieve info
What are eclectic psychologists?
- sees many factors influencing behavior
- considers all perspectives
What is psychology?
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
What did Wundt do?
- first psychology lab
Who was William James?
- wrote first psychology textbook
- functionalist- adapt survive and flourish
Who was Watson?
- called psychology the science of behavior
Who was Skinner?
- rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior
Who was Maslow?
- self actualization
- how do people grow
- importance of health
How do psychiatrists differ from psychologists?
can prescribe medicine
Why is psychology considered a science?
- it is a way of asking and answering questions
- it tests theories
- obervations and analysis
Why would a psychologist use animals in research instead of humans?
- they are very similar
- some experiments are only permissible with animals
What is a naturalistic observation?
observing naturally occurring situations without manipulating or controlling situation
What is correlation?
the measure to the extent that two factors vary together
What are the advantages and disadvantages of case studies and surveys?
- case studies can have fruitful ideas, but cant discern general truths if individual cases
- surveys are unrelaible
What is placebo effect?
experimental results from expectations alone
Why is random assignment important in experimentation?
equalizes the groups in terms of age, attitudes, etc.
What is the difference in positive and negative correlation?
- positive- rise and fall together
- negative- inversly related; one rises and other falls
What is the most powerful research tool?
What is difference control and experimental groups?
- control gets placebo
- exmperimental gets treatment
What is the difference between single and double blind study?
- single- participants dont know what group they are in
- double- niether researcher nor participant knows what group they are in
What are extraneous variables?
other variables that could affect experiment
describe scientific method.
define problem, create hypothesis, review lit., perform test, analyze results, make conclusions
What is replication? Why is it important?
- repeating experiments with different people and situations
- increases confidence in reliability
What is hindsight bias?
tendency to believe, after learning outcome, that one would have foreseen it
What is observer bias?
observers know goals of study and allow this to influence their observation