Ecology Evolution and Behavior

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Ecology Evolution and Behavior
2014-02-28 11:15:26
Ecology Evolution behavior

Intro bio 213, buff state
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  1. Evolution
    • Change in species over time
    • A organism's adaptations to its environment
  2. Adaptation
    Change within species to better adapt to environment(microevolution)
  3. Diversity
    Splitting of species into new species(macroevolution)
  4. The Scale of Nature: person, date and description
    • Aristotle
    • 384-322 BC
    • Fixed and perfect species designed by god
  5. Who organized diversity and when?
    • Carolus Linnaeus
    • 1707-1778
  6. Who proposed principle of gradualism and when?
    • Hulton
    • 1795
  7. Who published "Essay on the Principle of Population" and when
    • Malthus
    • 1798
  8. Who published their hypothesis on evolution and when?
    • Lamarck
    • 1809
  9. Who published extensive studies of vertebrate fossils and when?
    • Cuvier
    • 1812
  10. Who published Principles of Geology and when?
    • Lyell
    • 1830
  11. When was Origin of Species published?
  12. Developed palenontology, anatomy
    Georges Cuvier
  13. Given enough time changes will happen(via geological features)
    James Hutton
  14. Uniformitarianism
    earth must be older then bible suggests
    Charles Lyell
  15. 1st well developed theory or mechanism of evolution
    Jean-Baptiste de Lamarch
  16. Who wrote "Theory of Evolution by the Inheritance of Acquired CHaracteristics" and when was it published?
    • Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
    • 1809
  17. What are the two major influences on development of Darwin's ideas?
    • 1. Domestication of plants and animals, artificial selection
    • 2. Thomas Malthus, Essay on the Principle of Population
  18. General ideasĀ of Principle of Population
    • Struggle in nature to select the stronger traits
    • nature produces more organisms than it can handle
  19. Who had the same ideas as Darwin?
    Alfred Russel Wallace
  20. Two main ideas of The Origin of Species
    • 1. All lie on Earth is related by common descent
    • 2. Natural selection is the main cause of adaptive evolution
  21. What is the mechanism that causes changes over time?
    Natural Selection
  22. Phenotype:
    • Observable properties of an individual
    • Environment selects phenotypes
    • genotype + environmental influence = phenotype
  23. Genotype:
    • Genetic make-up of individual
    • DNA
    • Random mutations
    • *Only genotypes can be passed on*
  24. What does the mechanism of evolution have to have?
    Both phenotype and genotype
  25. Three observations that helped Darwin:
    • 1. Individuals in a population can vary greatly
    • 2. traits are inherited from parents to offspring
    • 3. Species produce more offspring than their environment can support. Many do not survive.
  26. 2 Inferences that helped Darwin:
    1. Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more descendents that other individuals.

    2. Unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce leads to accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations.
  27. Three sources of genetic variability:
    • Mutations
    • recombination via sexual reproduction
    • immigration of new genotypes
  28. 2 ways natural selection operates via differential reproductive success
    • 1. Mortality-survivorship
    • 2. Reproductive ability(fecundity/fertility)
  29. Fitness
    successful reproduction and contribution to successful future generations
  30. Three important points about evolution by natural selection:
    • 1. populations evolve, individual organisms do not.
    • 2. Natural selection only works on heritable traits
    • 3. A trait favorable in one environment may be neutral or unfavorable in a different environment
  31. Biology
    The scientific study of life
  32. Emergent properties
    New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
  33. 10 levels of biological organization:
    • 1. Biosphere
    • 2. Ecosystems
    • 3. COmmunities
    • 4. Populations
    • 5. Organisms
    • 6. Organs and Organ Systems
    • 7. Tissues
    • 8. Cells
    • 9. Organelles
    • 10. Molecules
  34. Eukaryotic Cell:
    • membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles
    • Protists, plants, fungi, and animals
  35. Prokaryotic Cell
    • Cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles
    • Bacteria and Archaea
  36. Gene expression
    Process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNA.
  37. Genome
    Genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences.
  38. Genomics
    The study of whole sets of genes and their interactions within a species, as well as genome comparisons between species.
  39. Bioinformatics
    The use of computers, software, and mathematical models to process and integrate biological information from large data sets.
  40. Negative feedback
    A form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process; in physiology, a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change.
  41. Positive feedback
    A form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process; in physiology, a control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers a response that reinforces or amplifies the change.
  42. Science
    An approach to understanding the natural world
  43. Data
    Recorded observations
  44. Inductive reasoning
    A type of logicĀ  in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations.
  45. Hypothesis
    A testable explanation for a set of observations based on available data and guided by inductive reasoning. A hypothesis is narrower in scope than a theory
  46. Deductive reasoning
    A type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise
  47. Controlled experiment
    An experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that varies only in the factor being tested
  48. Theory
    An explanation that is broader in scope than a hypothesis, generates new hypotheses, and is supported by a large body of evidence.
  49. Uniformitarianism
    The principle that mechanisms of change are constant over time.
  50. Catastrophism
    The principle that events in the past occurred suddenly and were caused by different mechanisms than those operating today.
  51. Homology
    Similarity in characteristics resulting from a share ancstery
  52. Homologous structures
    Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry
  53. Vestigial structures
    A feature of an organism that is a historical remnant of a structure that served a function in the organism's ancestors
  54. Convergent evolution
    The evolution of similar features in independent evolutionary lineages
  55. Analogous
    Having characteristics that are similar because of convergent evolution, not homology
  56. biogeography
    The study of the past and present geographic distribution of species.
  57. Pangaea
    The supercontinent that formed near the end of the Paleozoic era, when plate movements brought all the landmasses of Earth together
  58. endemic
    Referring to a species that is confined to a specific geographic area.
  59. Microevolution
    Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the allele frequencies in a population over generations.
  60. genetic variation
    Differences among individuals in the composition of their genes or other DNA segments
  61. average heterozygosity
    The percentage, on average, of a population's loci that are heterozygous in members of the population
  62. geographic variation
    Differences between the gene pools of geographically separate populations or population subgroups
  63. cline
    A graded change in a character along a geographic axis.
  64. Population
    A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring
  65. Gene pool
    The aggregate of all copies of every type of allele at all loci in every individual in a population.
  66. Hardy-Weinberg principle
    The principle that frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population remain constant from generation to generation, provided that only Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles are at work.
  67. Genetic drift
    A process in which chance events cause unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next. Effects of genetic drift are most pronounced in small populations
  68. Founder effect
    Genetic drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and form a new population whose gene pool composition is not reflective of that of the original population
  69. Bottleneck effect
    Genetic drift that occurs when the size of a population is reduced, as by a natural disaster or human actions. Typically, the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.
  70. Gene flow
    The transfer of alleles from one population to another, resulting from the movement of fertile individuals or their gametes.
  71. Relative fitness
    The contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contributions of other individuals in the population.
  72. Directional Selection
    Natural selection in which individuals at one end of the phenotypic range survive or reproduce more successfully than do other individuals
  73. Stabilizing Selection
    Natural selection in which intermediate phenotypes survive or reproduce more successfully than do extreme phenotypes
  74. Disruptive Selection
    Natural selection in which individuals on both extremes of a phenotypic range survive or reproduce more successfully than do individuals with intermediate phenotypes.
  75. Sexual Selection
    A form of selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates
  76. Sexual Dimorphism
    Differences between the secondary sex characteristics of males and females
  77. Intrasexual Selection
    Selection in which there is direct competition among individuals of one sex for mates of the opposite sex.
  78. Intersexual Selection
    Selection whereby individuals of one sex (usually females) are choosy in selecting their mates from individuals of the other sex; also called mate choice
  79. Neutral Variation
    Genetic variation that does not provide a selective advantage or disadvantage
  80. Balancing Selection
    Natural selection that maintains two or more phenotypic forms in a population
  81. Heterozygote Advantage
    Greater reproductive success of heterozygous individuals compared with homozygotes; tends to preserve variation in a gene pool
  82. Frequency-dependent Selection
    Selection in which the fitness of a phenotype depends on how common the phenotype is in a population
  83. Mutations
    A change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA or in the DNA or RNA of a virus
  84. Point Mutations
    A change in a single nucleotide pair of a gene
  85. Nucleotide-pair substitution
    A type of point mutation in which one nucleotide in a DNA strand and its partner in the complementary stand are replaces by another pair of nucleotides
  86. Silent Mutation
    A nucleotide-pair substitution that has no observable effect on the phenotype; for example, within a gene, a mutation that results in a codon that codes for the same amino acid.
  87. Missense Mutations
    A nucleotide-pair substitution that results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid
  88. Nonsense Mutation
    A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein
  89. Insertions
    A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotides pairs to a gene
  90. Deletions
    • A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage
    • A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene
  91. Frameshift Mutation
    A mutation occurring when nucleotides are inserted in or deleted from a gene and the number inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the subsequent nucleotides into codons.
  92. Mutagens
    A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and can cause a mutation