Ecology Evolution and Behavior
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- Change in species over time
- A organism's adaptations to its environment
Change within species to better adapt to environment(microevolution)
Splitting of species into new species(macroevolution)
The Scale of Nature: person, date and description
- 384-322 BC
- Fixed and perfect species designed by god
Who organized diversity and when?
- Carolus Linnaeus
Who proposed principle of gradualism and when?
Who published "Essay on the Principle of Population" and when
Who published their hypothesis on evolution and when?
Who published extensive studies of vertebrate fossils and when?
Who published Principles of Geology and when?
When was Origin of Species published?
Developed palenontology, anatomy
Given enough time changes will happen(via geological features)
earth must be older then bible suggests
1st well developed theory or mechanism of evolution
Jean-Baptiste de Lamarch
Who wrote "Theory of Evolution by the Inheritance of Acquired CHaracteristics" and when was it published?
- Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
What are the two major influences on development of Darwin's ideas?
- 1. Domestication of plants and animals, artificial selection
- 2. Thomas Malthus, Essay on the Principle of Population
General ideas of Principle of Population
- Struggle in nature to select the stronger traits
- nature produces more organisms than it can handle
Who had the same ideas as Darwin?
Alfred Russel Wallace
Two main ideas of The Origin of Species
- 1. All lie on Earth is related by common descent
- 2. Natural selection is the main cause of adaptive evolution
What is the mechanism that causes changes over time?
- Observable properties of an individual
- Environment selects phenotypes
- genotype + environmental influence = phenotype
- Genetic make-up of individual
- Random mutations
- *Only genotypes can be passed on*
What does the mechanism of evolution have to have?
Both phenotype and genotype
Three observations that helped Darwin:
- 1. Individuals in a population can vary greatly
- 2. traits are inherited from parents to offspring
- 3. Species produce more offspring than their environment can support. Many do not survive.
2 Inferences that helped Darwin:
1. Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more descendents that other individuals.
2. Unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce leads to accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations.
Three sources of genetic variability:
- recombination via sexual reproduction
- immigration of new genotypes
2 ways natural selection operates via differential reproductive success
- 1. Mortality-survivorship
- 2. Reproductive ability(fecundity/fertility)
successful reproduction and contribution to successful future generations
Three important points about evolution by natural selection:
- 1. populations evolve, individual organisms do not.
- 2. Natural selection only works on heritable traits
- 3. A trait favorable in one environment may be neutral or unfavorable in a different environment
The scientific study of life
New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
10 levels of biological organization:
- 1. Biosphere
- 2. Ecosystems
- 3. COmmunities
- 4. Populations
- 5. Organisms
- 6. Organs and Organ Systems
- 7. Tissues
- 8. Cells
- 9. Organelles
- 10. Molecules
- membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles
- Protists, plants, fungi, and animals
- Cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles
- Bacteria and Archaea
Process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNA.
Genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences.
The study of whole sets of genes and their interactions within a species, as well as genome comparisons between species.
The use of computers, software, and mathematical models to process and integrate biological information from large data sets.
A form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process; in physiology, a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change.
A form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process; in physiology, a control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers a response that reinforces or amplifies the change.
An approach to understanding the natural world
A type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations.
A testable explanation for a set of observations based on available data and guided by inductive reasoning. A hypothesis is narrower in scope than a theory
A type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise
An experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that varies only in the factor being tested
An explanation that is broader in scope than a hypothesis, generates new hypotheses, and is supported by a large body of evidence.
The principle that mechanisms of change are constant over time.
The principle that events in the past occurred suddenly and were caused by different mechanisms than those operating today.
Similarity in characteristics resulting from a share ancstery
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry
A feature of an organism that is a historical remnant of a structure that served a function in the organism's ancestors
The evolution of similar features in independent evolutionary lineages
Having characteristics that are similar because of convergent evolution, not homology
The study of the past and present geographic distribution of species.
The supercontinent that formed near the end of the Paleozoic era, when plate movements brought all the landmasses of Earth together
Referring to a species that is confined to a specific geographic area.
Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the allele frequencies in a population over generations.
Differences among individuals in the composition of their genes or other DNA segments
The percentage, on average, of a population's loci that are heterozygous in members of the population
Differences between the gene pools of geographically separate populations or population subgroups
A graded change in a character along a geographic axis.
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring
The aggregate of all copies of every type of allele at all loci in every individual in a population.
The principle that frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population remain constant from generation to generation, provided that only Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles are at work.
A process in which chance events cause unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next. Effects of genetic drift are most pronounced in small populations
Genetic drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and form a new population whose gene pool composition is not reflective of that of the original population
Genetic drift that occurs when the size of a population is reduced, as by a natural disaster or human actions. Typically, the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.
The transfer of alleles from one population to another, resulting from the movement of fertile individuals or their gametes.
The contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contributions of other individuals in the population.
Natural selection in which individuals at one end of the phenotypic range survive or reproduce more successfully than do other individuals
Natural selection in which intermediate phenotypes survive or reproduce more successfully than do extreme phenotypes
Natural selection in which individuals on both extremes of a phenotypic range survive or reproduce more successfully than do individuals with intermediate phenotypes.
A form of selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates
Differences between the secondary sex characteristics of males and females
Selection in which there is direct competition among individuals of one sex for mates of the opposite sex.
Selection whereby individuals of one sex (usually females) are choosy in selecting their mates from individuals of the other sex; also called mate choice
Genetic variation that does not provide a selective advantage or disadvantage
Natural selection that maintains two or more phenotypic forms in a population
Greater reproductive success of heterozygous individuals compared with homozygotes; tends to preserve variation in a gene pool
Selection in which the fitness of a phenotype depends on how common the phenotype is in a population
A change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA or in the DNA or RNA of a virus
A change in a single nucleotide pair of a gene
A type of point mutation in which one nucleotide in a DNA strand and its partner in the complementary stand are replaces by another pair of nucleotides
A nucleotide-pair substitution that has no observable effect on the phenotype; for example, within a gene, a mutation that results in a codon that codes for the same amino acid.
A nucleotide-pair substitution that results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotides pairs to a gene
- A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage
- A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene
A mutation occurring when nucleotides are inserted in or deleted from a gene and the number inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the subsequent nucleotides into codons.
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and can cause a mutation
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