A&P Ch10,11

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A&P Ch10,11
2010-07-07 21:55:44
muscular tissue

Muscle tissue
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  1. Characteristics of muscular tissue
    • excitablility-stimili
    • contractibility-shorten and thicken
    • extensibility-stretched wo breaking
    • elasticity-return to original shape
  2. functions of muscles tissue
    • motion
    • posture
    • heat production
  3. types of muscle tissue
    • skeltal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  4. skeltal muscle char
    • voluntary
    • striated
  5. cardiac muscle char
    striated and involuntary
  6. superficial fascia
    connects skin to muscle
  7. deep fascia-
    3 parts
    • surrounds and suspends muscles and viscera
    • 1-epimysium
    • 2-perimysium
    • 3-endomysium
  8. epimysium
    outer sheath that surrounds each individual muscle- big
  9. perimysium
    • surrounds each bundle of fibers w/i muscles
    • (fasiculi)
  10. endomysium
    surround individual muscle fibers in the fisiculi
  11. linea alba
    longitudinal midanterior tendinous line from the zyphoid process to the symphisis pubis for abs
  12. galea apneurotica
    • aka epicranial
    • tendous sheet for cranial insertion for upper scalp muscles
  13. skeletal muscles consist of ____/__ covered by the ___/___
    • cells/fibers
    • sarcolema/plasma membrane
  14. skeltal muscles histology
    • multi nuclei
    • sarcoplamic reticulum
    • terminal sisterns
    • transverse tubules
    • myofibrils
  15. myofibrils can be __ or __
    • thick-composed of protein- myacine
    • thin- = actin
  16. sarcoplasmic reticulum
    ER of a muscle, job is to transport
  17. what does the sr feed into?
    terminal cisterns
  18. transverse tubles
    extensions of the sarcolemma into the muscle fiber for fluids that contribute to fiber contraction
  19. the sarcomeres are separated by
    z lines or z disks
  20. the A band (anisotropic band)
    extends from one end to the other of the thick myofilaments. forms the dark striations in the sk. muscle
  21. I band (isotropic)
    extends from the end of one thick filament to the beginning of the next. forms the light striations
  22. h zone
    w/i a band. contains thick but no thin myofilaments
  23. M line
    runs down middle of H zone. composed of protein molecules that connect the centers of the thick myofilaments
  24. neuromotor junction
    • aka motor end plate
    • where nerve meets muscle
  25. axon terminal
    • aka synaptic end bulb
    • part of the nerve that lies in a pocket called synaptic cleft
  26. synaptic cleft
    pocket in sarcolemma where nerve axon terminal is
  27. acetycholine
    • neurotransmitter substance that is released at the neuromuscular junction in the synaptic cleft.
    • it initiates the muscle action potential or muscle impulse
  28. how is calcium ions released?
    the muscle action potential travels over the sarcolemma and enters the transverse tubules triggering the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release it into the sarcoplasm
  29. calcium ions cause __ to release __ which splits ___ into __
    • mitochondria
    • ATPase
    • ATP
    • ADP
  30. what shortens the sarcomere?
    cross bridges ratchet the thick and thin myofilaments in opposite directions
  31. what stops the action potential? causes
    • the release of acetylcholinesterase in the synaptic cleft.
    • cross bridges relax and muscles relax
  32. aerobic metabolism
    oxygen required. longer than 10 min
  33. anaerobic met
    • w/o oxygen.
    • phosphogen system
    • glycogen lactic acid system
  34. phosphogen system
    has phosphocreatine that degrades to creatine with the release of energy. lasts 15 senconds
  35. glycogen lactic acid system
    glycogen breaks down to pyruvate. 30-40 sec for strenous activity
  36. myogram
    record of muscle contraction
  37. mygraph
    instrument that records muscle contraction
  38. 4 periods on a myograph
    • latent
    • contraction
    • relaxation
    • refractory
  39. latent
    time btwn application of the stimulus and the beginning of contractions- 2 milli sec
  40. contraction period
    the upward tracing
  41. relaxation
    downward tracing
  42. refractory
    excitablity is temp. lost
  43. types of contractions in a muscle
    • twitch- rapid jerky
    • wave summation-2nd strong stimulus is applied befor the muscle relaxes
  44. In wave summation, if a muscle is repeatedly stimulated it will go into (2 thing)
    • unfused tetnus
    • fused tetnus
  45. unfused tetnus
    • stimulation 20-30 times per sec.
    • fibrilate or pulsate
  46. fused tetnus
    • 80-100 pulsations per sec.
    • can be- isotonic contractions, lifting weights
    • -isometric, pushing wall
  47. muscle tension (force) depends on 4 factors
    • frequency of stimulation
    • # of contracting fibers
    • components of the muscle fibers
    • length of muscle fiber prior to contraction
  48. hypotonia
    less than normal tone
  49. hypertonia
    increased muscle tone
  50. muscular atrophe
    catbolic wasting away
  51. muscular hypertrophy
    anabolic increase in muscle size
  52. cardiac muscle tissue structure
    • found only in heart.
    • fibers are short and fat
    • one centrally located nucleus
    • striated
    • possess intercalated disks
  53. innercalated disks function
    • hold fiber together with desmosomes.
    • aid in conduction of action potentials through gap junctions
  54. Energy is supplied by __ and __
    numerous mitochondria and the catabolism of glycogen
  55. WHat types of muscle tissue remain contracted longer than skeletal muscles
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  56. Which muscle has a long refractory period
  57. smooth muscle tiss structure
    • nonstriated
    • involuntary
    • thick at center, taper at ends
    • single central nucleus
    • found in visera, organs, ateries, veins, branchioles, eye muscles
  58. regeneration of muscle tissues
    • skeltal- limited
    • cardiac- none
    • smooth- limited capacity for division and regeneration
  59. tenosynovitis
    inflammation of tendon sheaths and synovial membranes. commonly seen in wrist(carpol tunnel) and elbow(tennis elbow)
  60. tetnus
    • lockjaw-bacterial illness that causes muscles to spasm.
    • W/0 treatment die with a fixed smile and raised eyebrows
  61. fibrosis
    formation of fibrous connective tissue in muscles as a result of trauma and can cause neucrosis
  62. muscular dystrophy
    gradual wasting of muscle tissue leading to death-genetic-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's or ALS) and Duchenne's
  63. rigor mortis
    state of partial contraction of muscles following death. latck of ATP causes crossbridges to lock. Lasts 24 hrs disappears during 12hr period as tissue begins to decompose
  64. Muscular system is comprised of:
    skeletal mucsles and connective tissue
  65. origin
    attachment to the stationary bone
  66. insertion
    attachment to the movable bone
  67. belly
    central portion of muscle
  68. folcrums
  69. levers
  70. resistance
    force to be overcome
  71. effort
    force to overcome resistance
  72. 1st class levers
    fulcrom lies between effort and resistance (seesaw) atlanto occipital joint
  73. 2nd class levers
    fulcrom at one end at one end, effort at the opposite end, resitance between (tippy toes)
  74. 3rd class levers
    fulcrum at one end, resistance at opposite end and effort between (flexion of arm)
  75. how does leverage change with distance?
    • strength increases with distance from the joint
    • RoM decreases with distance from the joint
  76. Skeletal muscle fibers are arranged in bundles called
  77. arrangement of fasciculi
    • pennate- shorter
    • parallel
    • fusiform- taper like ftball
    • convergent-broad to converge
    • circular
  78. agonist
    (prime mover) muscle that causes a desired action
  79. antagonist
    produces and opposite action
  80. synergists
    steadies a movement and makes it more effiecent
  81. names are based on what characteristics
    • direction of fibers
    • location
    • size
    • number of origins
    • shape
    • origin/insertion
    • action
    • combination
  82. achilles tendonitis
    frequently ruptures
  83. shinsplits
    stretching of the fascia
  84. trochanteric bearsitus
    painful when ligments and muscles rub
  85. strains vs sprains
    • strains are to muscles or tendons
    • sprains are to ligaments
  86. muscularskeltal injuries are treated with
    rest, ice, heat, antiinflammitories