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  1. Alendronate sodium (Fosamax)
    used to treat osteoporosis

    Medication should be taken upon awakening, at least 30 minutes before the first food, beverage, or other medication of the day; food of any kind, especially calcium-containing items like dairy, impairs absorption, as do antacids; Fosamax should be taken with an 8-oz glass of plain water.

    Fosamax is an oral biphosphate (like Boniva) that inhibits bone resorption; can be highly irritating to the GI tract, particularly the esophagus, causing irritation and ulcerations/erosions; dysphagia can also result; after taking the medication, patient should sit (or stand) for at least 30 minutes in order to facilitate delivery to the stomach and prevent acid regurgitation and esophageal reflux

    places the client at risk for ECT (electroconvulsive therapy); should be reported to the physician
  2. clonidine (Catapres-TTS) transdermal patch
    a centrally acting alpha-adrenergic used to   treat hypertension

    apply to nonhairy site every 7 days

    side effects include drowsiness, sedation, orthostatic hypotension; heart failure

    should be cautious around microwave because leaking radiation can heat the patch’s metallic backing and result in burns

    electric blanket contraindicated due to increased absorption of medication due to heat; if heat is required, adjusting dose may be needed to avoid toxicity
  3. aspirin
    toxicity indicator: tinnitis
  4. lithium carbonate (Lithobid)
    for pt with bipolar disorder, psychotherapeutic agent used for prevention or control of mania

    onset of action is rapid and duration of action is variable

    Normal therapeutic range with initial treatment is 1.0 - 1.5 mEq/L

    Toxic: > 2.0 mEq/L

    Inc urine output is an expected side effect, encourage client to drink 12 glasses of water daily(3.)

    Fine hand tremors are frequent expected side effect known as "lithium tremor"; coarse hand tremor is a danger sign

    Darrhea is sign of lithium toxicity along with oversedation, ataxia, tinnitus, slurred speech, and muscle weakness/twitching; stop lithium and obtain serum levels when diarrhea present.
  5. carbidopa/levodopa (Sinemet)
    Sinemet is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

    Instruct patient to take immediately before meals; high-protein meals may impair effectiveness of medication.

    Reduces rigidity and bradykinesis and facilitates client’s mobility: "better able to ambulate”
  6. albuterol (Proventil)
    used to treat asthma attacks;

    Proventil is a bronchodilator that will also (if prescribed this way) open the passageways so the steroid medication (Vanceril) can get into bronchioles -  if both inhalers are used, use albuterol first, wait 5 min, and then use the beclomethasone

    side effects of Proventil include tremors, headache, hyperactivity, tachycardia; nursing considerations: monitor for toxicity if using tablets and aerosol, teach how to use inhaler correctly.

    wait one minute between puffs of the inhalers for best effect
  7. beclomethasone (Vanceril)
    anti-inflammatory used to prevent asthma attacks

    May be preceded by albuterol to open bronchiols -  if both inhalers are used, use albuterol first, wait 5 min, and then use the beclomethasone

    steroid medication

    side effects include fungal infections, dry mouth, throat infections

    wait one minute between puffs of the inhalers for best effect

    gargle or rinse mouth after using Vanceril
  8. amoxicillin trihydrate (Amoxil)
    maximum absorption occurs on empty stomach

    Not necessary to protect the medication from sunlight and warmth.

    particles aren’t totally dissolved in a suspension; need to be shaken
  9. doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin)
    used in cancer chemotherapy

    stomatitis may occur 5 to 10 days after receiving medication; encourage client to use a sponge brush, rinse mouth with water after eating and drinking

    medication causes urine to turn red for 1 to 2 days; inform client of occurrence

    Alopecia - avoid brushing hair, blow-drying, and frequent shampooing

    Fever - causes bone marrow depression; promptly report fever, sore throat, and signs of infection
  10. fluvoxamine (Luvox)
    for OCD

    side effect of dry mouth
  11. heparin sodium (Heparin)
    should be given in abdomen

    subcutaneous injection; should use 25- to 27-gauge 3/8- to 5/8-inch needle

    Do not aspirate after inserting the needle

    site should not be massaged; causes bruising
  12. amitriptyline hydrochloride (Elavil)
     a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). It is the most widely used TCA and is an efficacious treatment for major depressive disorder (clinical depression).

    has a sedative effect; other side effects include blurred vision, dry mouth, diaphoresis, postural hypotension ( instruct client to sit on side of bed before arising in the morning), palpitations, constipation, urinary retention, increased appetite 

    sunblock required             
  13. nystatin (Mycostatin)
    an antifungal agent in oral suspension

    should be swished around in the mouth and then swallowed
  14. Digoxin (Lanoxin)
    cardiac glycoside used to treat heart failure

    oral loading dose is 0.75 mg - 1.25 mg and should be administered  in divided doses   over 24 hours

    Today, the most common indications for digoxin are atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter with rapid ventricular response, though beta blockers and/or calcium channel blockers are a better first choice

    toxic levels for digoxin are over 2 ng/mL

    normal therapeutic level of digoxin in the blood is between 0.5 and 2 ng/mL

    low potassium levels precipitate digoxin toxicity

    licorice can increase potassium loss and may cause digoxin toxicity

    withhold 48 hours before cardioversion to prevent ventricular fibrillation
  15. Furosemide (Lasix)
    loop diuretic

    monitor BP, pulse rate, I and O

    • a potassium-wasting diuretic; client needs to increase intake of potassium (mg potassium)
    • One medium baked potato (407)
    • One slice of white bread (27)
    • One medium apple (159)
    • One scrambled egg (66)
    • 1 1/4 cup of corn flakes (26)
    • 1 cup of cantaloupe (825)  
  16. sulindac (Clinoril)

    Ecchymosis of the extremities - should notify physician if easy bruising or prolonged bleeding occurs
  17. flurazepam hydrochloride (Dalmane)
    sedative/hypnotic used for short-term management of insomnia

    side effects include confusion, daytime drowsiness, blurred vision

    medication that produces dependence should be a last resort; used only if other nursing measures and antidepressant medications have not worked and the client is exhausted
  18. nitroprusside
    This drug is used as a vasodilator to reduce blood pressure. It has also been used to treat other conditions, and it has been successfully tried as treatment for schizophrenia
  19. Meds that need to be protected from light and should be shaded
    • nitroprusside
    • amphotericin B
    • nitroglycerin
  20. meperidine hydrochloride (Demerol)
    may mask signs of ICP
  21. Propranolol HCL (Inderal)
    sympatholytic non-selective beta blocker. Sympatholytics are used to treat hypertension, anxiety and panic, antianginal, antiarrhythmic

    contraindicated in clients with uncompensated heart failure and pulmonary edema

    Adverse effects include bronchospasm, so contraindicated with COPD, asthma, emphysema

    other side effects include bradycardia and depression; nursing care includes taking pulse before administering medication; dosage should be gradually reduced before discontinued

    may mask symptoms of diabetic hypoglycemia, removing your body’s early warning system
  22. acyclovir (Zovirax)
    antiviral used to treat recurrent genital herpes infection and localized cutaneous herpes zoster

    if dose is missed, take it as soon as possible, but do not take medication immediately before next dose or double up on dose
  23. bromocriptine (Parlodel)
    dantrolene (Dantrium)
    used for CNS toxicity, e.g. neuroleptic malignant syndrome (temperature of 105°F (40.5°C), severe rigidity, oculogyric crisis, and severe hypertension); fatal in about 15–20% of cases; is toxic effect of antipsychotic medication
  24. bromocriptine (Parlodel)
    a dopamine agonist that is used in the treatment of pituitary tumors, Parkinson's disease (PD), hyperprolactinaemia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.

     taken twice a day for 2 to 3 weeks

    should be taken with meals to decrease GI upset
  25. phenelzine sulfate (Nardil)
    monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class which is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic

    For hypokalemic pt, Banana and raisin fruit salad is high in potassium, but bananas are also high in tyramine; when tyramine is ingested with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as Nardil, it can cause a hypertensive crisis

    contains tyramine, which precipitates a hypertensive crisis; symptoms include severe headache, stiff sore neck, flushing, cold, clammy skin, tachycardia, dilated pupils, nosebleed, chest pains, fever, high blood pressure, nausea and vomiting, and possible death

    most vegetables are acceptable with MAOIs

    whole-wheat bread is likely to have yeast, which is contraindicated with MAOIs

    cream cheese is one of a few cheeses that is acceptable with MAOIs

    avocados high in potassium and tyramine; when ingested with an MAOI such as Nardil, can cause a hypertensive crisis
  26. zidovudine (AZT)
    for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

    Write the schedule of when the medicine should be taken - planned and written schedule of administration is more effective for adherence to time frames

    But: 4-hour schedule
  27. Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent)
    used with asthma
  28. doxycycline (Vibramycin)
    tetracycline HCL (Achromycin)
    tetracycline hydrochloride (Sumycin)
    broad spectrum antibiotic

    doxycycline is a tetracycline and causes photosensitivity

    taken at regular intervals around the clock but should not be taken within 1 hour of bedtime because it may cause esophageal irritation

    when taking tetracycline, client should use nonhormonal method (condoms) of birth control during the menstrual cycle

    do not take antacids within 1 to 3 hours of taking oral tetracycline

    should be taken on an empty stomach
  29. Miconazole (Monistat 7)
    full number of doses prescribed should be taken, even if menstruation occurs or symptoms resolve; given for vulvovaginal candidiasis
  30. cortisone
    has increased drastically the survival rate of this client population (90% remission rate); before that the prognosis was poor; polyarteritis nodosa is inflammation of the small arteries causing diminished blood
  31. ginkgo
    an antiplatelet agent and central nervous system stimulant given for dementia syndromes

    increases risk of bleeding when given with NSAIDs
  32. captopril (Capoten)
    ACE inhibitor used to treat hypertension

    take the medication 1 hour before meals or 2 hours after meals

    potassium sparing - avoid foods high in potassium (salt substitutes contain potassium )

    side effects include cough, hypotension, taste disturbances, and proteinuria

    ACE inhibitors are less effective in African Americans than they are in Caucasians;
  33. trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim)
    an antibiotic used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial, fungal and protozoal infections.

    treatment for PCP (Pneumocystis pneumonia, a form of pneumonia caused by the yeast-like fungus); symptoms of dyspnea, tachypnea, persistent dry cough, fever, fatigue

    It consists of 1 part trimethoprim to 5 parts sulfamethoxazole

    mild to moderate rash is the most common side effect of Bactrim
  34. lithium (Lithane)
    lithium is a salt preparation and replaces sodium in the cells; low-sodium diet will precipitate lithium toxicity, so Regular sodium intake with adequate fluid intake

    side effect include dizziness, headache, impaired vision, fine hand tremors, and reversible   leukocytosis
  35. Ranitidine (Zantac)
    H2 histamine antagonist, reduces acid production in stomach, prevents stress ulcers

    best results when taking once a day at hs

    used for short-term treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcers
  36. Docusate sodium (Colace)
    stool softener, used for an immobilized patient
  37. Promethazine (Phenergan)
    H1 receptor blocker, used as an antiemetic
  38. trihexyphenidyl (Artane)

    or Cogentin
    For tx of acute extrapyramidal side effects [e.g. from haloperidol decanoate (Haldol D)] - torticollis, an arched back, and rapid movement of the eyes
  39. Morphine sulfate
    decreases preload and afterload pressures and cardiac workload, e.g. decrease blood return to the right side of the heart, and decrease peripheral resistance.

    causes vasodilation and pooling of fluid in extremities

    provides relief from anxiety

    causes CNS and respiratory depression, contraindicated in head injury because it masks signs of increased intracranial pressure
  40. gentamicin sulfate (Garamycin)

    decreased hearing and vertigo occur as a result of involvement of the eighth cranial nerve, which is caused by gentamicin (Garamycin) toxicity

    gentamicin is an aminoglycoside -> nephrotoxic, so it is usually dosed on ideal body weight.
  41. Desmopressin DDAVP (Vasopressin)
    a synthetic replacement for vasopressin, the hormone that reduces urine production.

    given for diabetes insipidus

    nasally or SQ required for remainder of life
  42. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)
    given to treat hyperkalemia
  43. glipizide (Glucotrol)
    Monitor hemoglobin - may cause aplastic anemia - monitor platelets and hemoglobin

    may cause photosensitivity
  44. quinapril (Accupril)
    an ACE inhibitor that blocks the release of aldosterone, which promotes potassium retention; client should avoid foods high in potassium; broccoli and bananas are high in potassium
  45. fluoxetine (Prozac)
    an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class - an "energizing" antidepressant; as client begins to demonstrate a positive response, he has an increased energy level, is able to participate more in milieu

    also used to treat obsessive compulsive disorder             

    takes about 4 weeks for full effect

    be aware of suicidal tendencies            

    causes drowsiness or insomnia

    side effects: hand tremors and leg twitching, hypervigilant and scans the environment

    if dose is missed, omit dose and instruct client to return to regular dosing schedule
  46. Glycerin (Osmoglyn)
    osmotic agent


    increases osmolarity of the blood, extracting fluid from extracellular space into the bloodstream, including aqueous humor and vitreous humor from the anterior chamber of the eye, thus decreasing intraocular pressure

    glycerin needs to be used with caution in diabetics because it can cause hyperglycemia
  47. Pilocarpine (Isopto-Carpine)
    direct-acting parasympathetic function causing miosis - Tx of glaucoma
  48. Acetazolamide (Diamox)
    used for the medical treatment of glaucoma, epileptic seizure, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (a.k.a. pseudotumor cerebri), altitude sickness, cystinuria, periodic paralysis, central sleep apnea, and dural ectasia. Acetazolamide is a diuretic

    However, PTs with sulfa allergies it is contraindicated; cross-sensitivity can occur due to allergy to antibacterial sulfonamides and sulfonamide derivatives
  49. phenytoin (Dilantin)
    an antiepileptic drug. It is useful to treat partial seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures but not primary generalized seizures such as absence seizures or myoclonic seizures

    metabolized and excreted by liver; elderly clients frequently have some degree of liver impairment, and are at high risk for toxic reaction to this medication

    pregnancy risk category D; physician should be notified of the possibility of a pregnancy
  50. metformin (Glucophage)
    a biguanide oral hypoglycemic agent

    does not cause hypoglycemia

    does not increase insulin secretion from the pancreas but helps tissues respond to insulin

    decreases gluconeogenesis, and increases glucose uptake into muscles and fat

    bitter or metallic tastes and abdominal cramps are two common side effects of this drug, which can be addressed by the physician possibly adjusting the dose and/or patient taking the medication with meals

    does not cause weight gain

    take with meals to reduce side effects of the drug–-e.g., nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal cramps, fatigue; these effects tend to be mild and to resolve as therapy continues
  51. atenolol (Tenormin)
    replacement for propranolol in the treatment of hypertension. The chemical works by slowing down the heart and reducing its workload. Unlike propranolol, atenolol does not pass through the blood–brain barrier thus avoiding various central nervous system side effects

    side effects include gastric pain, bradycardia, heart failure, decreased exercise tolerance, and nightmares

    if discontinued abruptly, may cause life-threatening dysrhythmias, hypertension, or myocardial ischemia; should be tapered gradually over 2 weeks

    take medication with meals

    beta blockers are less effective in African Americans than they are in Caucasians;
  52. Pemoline (Cylert)
    CNS stimulant used for attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity
  53. sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)
    used to treat inflammatory bowel disease

    increase fluids to prevent crystallization in the kidney tubules

    may turn the urine an orange-red color temporarily; does not discolor stool

    decreases bowel inflammation; administer after meals or with food

    diarrhea is symptom of ulcerative colitis; should continue taking the medication
  54. Lorazepam (Ativan)
    should be administered no faster than 2 mg perminute to prevent hypotension and respiratory depression

    during status epilepticus, which is a medical emergency in which the seizure needs to be stopped immediately

    can be given in a peripheral or cental venous catheter

    injection does not have to be mixed with a vasopressor.

     rapid onset and variable duration of action
  55. aluminum hydroxide gel (Amphojel)
    take the medication 1 hour after meals to prevent epigastric pain and most effective after digestion has started, but prior to the emptying of the stomach            

    antacids neutralize gastric acids, increase gastric pH, and inactivate pepsin

    contains sodium, check if patient is on sodium-restricted diet
  56. isoniazid (INH)
    TB trio

    Peripheral neuropathy (a common side effect; administer pyridoxine), hepatic enzyme elevation, hepatitis, hypersensitivity (signs and symptoms include rash, urticaria, and swelling of the face, lips, and eyelids); neuritis of the optic nerve (instruct to report any changes in vision, eye pain, or blurred vision)

    may cause peripheral neuropathy indicated by tingling, may also see nausea

    Infrequently causes blurred vision at times
  57. rifampin (Rifadin)
    TB trio

    rifampin – hepatitis, febrile reactions, nausea and vomiting, discoloration of body fluids (reddish-orange)—urine, sweat, tears, feces, and sputum—is a harmless side effect of rifampin (Rifadin); patient should be warned, though, that soft contact lenses may be permanently stained and therefore should not be worn; the stain will wash out of clothing ethambutol – skin rash; a major common adverse effect of ethambutol is optic neuritis, with reduced visual activity; lessened ability to see green is a possible initial sign
  58. ethambutol (Myambutol)
    TB trio

    hyperuricemia can occur resulting in acute gout symptoms, such as severe pain in the great toe; this indicates that the drug should be discontinued
  59. isoniazid (INH), rifampin (Rifadin), and ethambutol (Myambutol)
    TB is an infectious disease transmitted by droplet infection via airborne route

    to prevent resistant strains, 2 or 3 medications are usually administered concurrently

    take all 3 medications daily for first 8 weeks; after 8 weeks, isoniazid and rifampin administered for an additional 4–8 months

    must take medication for 6–12 months; considered noninfectious after 2–3 weeks of continuous medication (or 3 negative sputum cultures)
  60. cholestyramine (Questran)
    with meals - never take powder dry because it will cause esophageal irritation

    side effect is constipation; increase intake of fiber and fluids

    sprinkle on water, milk, or juice; let stand for a few minutes, mix, and drink, but not carbonated beverages - causes increased foaming

    is an antilipemic; regular exercise will prevent atherosclerosis

    increase fluids to prevent constipation

    Other medications should be taken 1 hour before or 4-6 hours after cholestyramine
  61. amiloride HCl (Midamor)
    a potassium-sparing diuretic
  62. captopril (Capoten)
    an ACE inhibitor; causes potassium retention
  63. epoetin alpha (Procrit)
    a biologic response modifier used to stimulate red blood cell production

    used to treat anemia due to chronic renal failure, zidovudine (AZT) therapy, chemotherapy

    contraindicated if client diagnosed with uncontrolled hypertension

    may experience flu-like symptoms at beginning of therapy; side effects include arthralgias, nausea, edema, reaction at injection site

    • likelihood of hypertension and seizures increases if hematocrit increases by more than 4 points in 2 weeks; contact physician to decrease dose
    • Standard precautions for newborn infant of an HIV-positive mother

    HTZ is not used in infancy
  64. clindamycin
    black box warning for it's high occurrence of pseudomembranous colitis, which is causes because normal flora of intestines are destroyed by it, allowing C. difficile to flourish which in turn causes pseudomembranous colitis
  65. vancomycin
    can cause nephrotoxicity (changes in urination freq or amount,nausea, vomiting, and increased thirst), ototoxicity (hearing loss) and Red-neck syndrome (fever, chills, tachy, rash, nausea, and redness of face, back, neck and arms)
  66. amantadine (Symmetrel)
    Acts against influenza virus

    Increases dopamine availability in chemoreceptor trigger zone of brain causing nausea and vomiting
  67. Prochlorperazine (Compazine)
    antiemetic used to control nausea and vomiting, anxiety

    nausea is a symptom of autonomic dysreflexia

    should be considered incompatible in a syringe with all other medications - administer in seperate syringe
  68. Hydralazine hydrochloride (Apresoline)
    a fast acting antihypertensive; relaxes smooth muscle

    side effects include headache, angina, tachycardia, palpitations, sodium retention, anorexia, lupus erythematosus-like syndrome (sore throat, fever, muscle-joint aches, rash).
  69. atenolol
    a beta-blocker that decreases excitability of the heart; reduces cardiac workload and oxygen consumption; decreases release of rennin; lowers blood pressure by reducing SNS stimuli

    should not be discontinued abruptly; may develop tachycardia, diaphoresis, malaise
  70. pentamidine isethionate (Pentam)
    an antiprotozoal agent used to prevent and/or treat Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, a common opportunistic infection in AIDS patients

    manifestations usually include coughing, fever, dyspnea, fatigue, and weight loss, and crackles are heard in the lungs

    can cause leukemia and thrombocytopenia as adverse effects
  71. procainamide HCl (Pronestyl) IV
    given to treat premature ventricular contractions or atrial tachycardia

    severe hypotension or bradycardia are signs of an adverse reaction to this medication
  72. Biperiden (Akineton)
    antiparkinsonian agent, used to counteract extrapyramidal side effects the client is experiencing: client takes perphenazine (Trilafon) by mouth for 2 days and now displays the following: head turned to the side, neck arched at an angle, and stiffness and muscle spasms in neck.
  73. Lidocaine hydrochloride (Xylocaine) IV
    lidocaine is the drug of choice for frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVC) occurring in excess of 6 to 10 per minute; for coupled PVCs or for a consecutive series of PVCs that may result in ventricular tachycardia

    However in complete heart block, the AV node blocks all impulses from the SA node, so the atria and ventricles beat independently; because lidocaine suppresses ventricular irritability, it may diminish the existing ventricular response; cardiac depressants are contraindicated in the presence of complete heart block
  74. Verapamil (Calan) IV
    antihypertensive, calcium-channel blocker
  75. Isoproterenol (Isuprel) IV
    antidysrhythmic, used for heart block, ventricular dysrhythmias
  76. dopamine (Intropin)
     indicated for correction of hemodynamic instability as a result of shock (and to maintain kidney perfusion); monitoring vital signs provides most appropriate information regarding effects of drug

    Heart rhythm more appropriately used to identify an undesirable effect of dopamine
  77. sucralfate (Carafate)
    primarily indicated for the treatment of active duodenal ulcers.

    Carafate forms a barrier on the gastrointestinal mucosa, would decrease absorption of other medications, separate by 2 hours

    Carafate best results on empty stomach
  78. metoclopramide (Reglin)
    prokinetic used to stimulate GI motility. During dobhoff (tube) placement, reglan can be used to stimulate upper GI motility and relax the pyloric valve to allow the dobhoff to be guided into the duodenum.

    used to treat nausea of chemotherapy
  79. dobutamine
    increases cardiac output in heart failure
  80. Atropine sulfate (Atropine) IV
    antidysrhythmic, used for bradycardia
  81. haloperidol decanoate (Haldol D)
    Give deep IM in a large muscle mass - very irritating to subcutaneous tissue

    should administer in single dose; patient should lie in recumbent position for one-half hour after

    side effects include galactorrhea (excessive or spontaneous flow of milk), lactation, gynecomastia (excessive growth of male mammary glands)

    rapid neuroleptization is a pharmacological intervention used to rapidly diminish severe symptoms that accompany acute psychosis; alpha-adrenergic blockade of peripheral vascular system lowers BP and causes postural hypotension -> Monitor blood pressure every 30 minutes.
  82. ritodrine hydrochloride (Yutopar)
    tocolytic (anti-contraction medication) to delay preterm labor for up to 48 hours

    ritodrine (Yutopar) may be preferred over Brethine as a tocolytic

    delivery by cesarean section is generally preferred for preterm infants
  83. cimetidine (Tagamet)
    a histamine H2-receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production. It is largely used in the treatment of heartburn and peptic ulcers.

    taking with meals ensures consistent therapeutic effect

    antacids interfere with absorption of Tagamet; administration should be separated by one hour

    diarrhea: common side effect, usually subsides

    acne-like rash - side effect seen with medication

    no change in stool color
  84. tranylcypromine sulfate (Parnate)
    an MAO inhibitor, it is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic agent in the clinical treatment of mood and anxiety disorders

     takes three to four weeks to work

    must avoid food with tyramine (aged cheese, yogurt, beer, wine) to prevent hypertensive crisis

    sunblock required
  85. terbutaline (Brethine)
    used as a "reliever" inhaler in the management of asthma symptoms

    Also as a tocolytic (anti-contraction medication) to delay preterm labor for up to 48 hours - delivery by cesarean section is generally preferred for preterm infants

    maternal tachycardia is a side effect of Brethine; other maternal side effects include nervousness, tremors, headache, and possible pulmonary edema

    fetal side effects include tachycardia and hypoglycemia

    Brethine is usually preferred over ritodrine (Yutopar) because it has minimal effects on blood pressure
  86. Codeine phosphate (Paveral)
    analgesic used for moderate to severe pain which is not contraindicated for and bleeding disorders such as hemophilia
  87. Ibuprofen (Motrin)
    increases bleeding time by decreasing platelet aggregation, contraindicated for persons with bleeding disorders
  88. Oxycodone terephthalate (Percodan)
    contains aspirin, contraindicated for persons with bleeding disorders
  89. Ketoconazole (Nizoral)
    drug of choice for treatment of candidiasis (white discharge in the back of the throat of an AIDS pt)
  90. Metronidazole (Flagyl)
    anti-infective, used in treatment of intestinal amebiasis, trichomoniasis, inflammatory bowel disease

    given with meals to decrease gastrointestinal upset

    shouldn't drink alcohol while I am taking this medication - causes Antabuse-like reaction of nausea and vomiting, headache, cramps, flushing

    experience a metallic taste in my mouth while taking this medication - not an issue
  91. gemfibrozil (Lopid)
    lipid-lowering agent used with patients with high serum triglyceride levels

    Monitor Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (liver function) normal 8–20 U/L

    side effects include abdominal pain, cholelithiasis

    take 30 minutes before breakfast and supper
  92. warfarin (Coumadin)
    an anticoagulant normally used in the prevention of thrombosis and thromboembolism, the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels and their migration elsewhere in the body respectively

    duration of Coumadin 2 to 5 days

    ingestion of large quantities of foods high in vitamin K content may antagonize the anticoagulant effect of warfarin
  93. epinephrine
    Vfib, flutter and unstable tachycardia
  94. oxytocin
    stimulates the uterus to contract

    which necessitates frequent assessment of the uterus; prolonged tetanic contraction can lead to a ruptured uterus
  95. magnesium sulfate
    for pre-eclampsia

    a central nervous system depressant; side effect is oliguria

    Assess respirations and urine output

    Have calcium gluconate available as an antidote; insure Patency of the vein because if injected into the extravascular tissues, calcium gluconate can cause a severe chemical burn 

    can cause slowing of respirations and hyporeflexia in newborn; normal respirations 30-60/min
  96. doxepin hydrochloride (Sinequan)
    an antidepressant

    signs of overdosage include excitability and tremors
  97. KCl 80 mEq to infuse in 0.5 hour?
    Contact the physician - rate of IV administration should be no faster than 20 mEq/h
  98. olanzapine (Zyprexa)
    atypical antipsychotic; client will have improved thought processes

    restless and trouble sitting still describes akathisia: must report to physician; will decrease dosage

    Stiffness and tremors describes extrapyramidal symptoms; contact physician immediately

    side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, muscle rigidity, constipation, increased appetite, tardive dyskinesia, akathisia, suicide, tachycardia and hypotension, significant weight gain; patient teaching includes report suicidal ideation, abnormal bleeding, sudden muscle pain/weakness and irregular heartbeat

    category C: risk to fetus; contraindicated during pregnancy
  99. Narcan
    used to reverse narcotic-induced respiratory depression; should frequently monitor BP, rate and depth of respirations, and pulse

    will cause tachycardia

    will cause signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal: nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal cramping and hypertension
  100. azithromycin (Zithromax)
    a macrolides anti-infective that causes diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain; notify health care provider if diarrhea occurs            
  101. Theophylline
    drug of choice for acute asthma

    a xanthine-derivative bronchodilator

    therapeutic range 10–20 mcg/mL

    toxicity occurs with levels over 20 mcg/mL;
  102. cisplatin (Platin)

    • nephrotoxicity
    • ototoxicity
    • nausea
    • vominting
    • anorexia
    • electrolyte imbalance
    • anemia
    • bone marrow suppression
  103. clozapine (Clozaril)
    an atypical antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia

    if WBCs fall below 2000/mm3, the drug will be discontinued - risk of agranulocytosis (e.g. severe and dangerous leukopenia), potentially life threatening; could also be seen with feeling hot and having a sore throat

    side effects include leukopenia, gram-negative septicemia, drowsiness, tachycardia, and hypotension

    excreted in breast milk; breast feeding contraindicated
  104. topiramate (Topamax)
    an anticonvulsant

    should drink 2000-3000 ml of fluid daily to prevent kidney stones

    may cause orthostatic hypotension

    discontinued if ocular symptoms occur; may lead to blindness

    use non-hormonal contraceptives when taking topiramate            
  105. Thiethylperazine (Torecan)
    an antiemetic

    should stay in bed one hour after getting medication because of possible orthostatic hypotension
  106. Lomotil
  107. Vicodin
    opiate narcotic
  108. hydrochlorothiazide
    potassium wasting diuretic

    inhibiting the kidneys' ability to retain water
  109. gentamycin (Garamycin)

    ototoxicity is serious adverse effect of aminoglycosides such as gentamycin
  110. ferrous sulfate (Feosol)
    side effect of medication is constipation; increase intake of fruits, fiber, and fluids

    other side effects include gastric irritation, nausea, abdominal cramps, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, and dark colored stools

    Administering ferrous sulfate (Feosol) 325 mg with coffee is considered negligence because it may impair iron absorption; give with orange juice
  111. aminophylline (Truphylline)
    xanthine bronchodilator; causes rapid pulse and dysrhythmias

    causes nausea and vomiting

    levels above 20 mcg/L are considered toxic

    major side effect/toxic effects include confusion, headache, flushing, tachycardia, and seizure; notify the physician immediately if symptoms of drug toxicity occur            

    increased urination may occur with toxicity
  112. Fluphenazine decanoate (Prolixin)
    psychotherapeutic medication used in management of psychotic disorders

    oil preparation that is given IM or SQ q 1–6 weeks; use 21-gauge needle to administer; takes 24 to 96 hours for onset of action
  113. ethacrynic acid (Edecrin)
    loop diuretics are potassium wasting; encourage client to increase intake of potassium-rich foods

    loop diuretic that may cause orthostatic hypotension; instruct client to rise slowly

    take the medication early in the day, sleep will not be disturbed by increased urination
  114. Pantopaque
    an oil-based dye for myelogram

    need to replace fluid lost with removal of oil-based dye; offer oral analgesics for headache
  115. metrizamide
    water-based dye for myelogram

    Monitor for seizures; neurologic assessment q 2–4 h
  116. indomethacin (Indocin)
    (NSAID) commonly used as a prescription medication to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling

    Take this medication with food to reduce GI upset

    (True of all NSAIDs...)

    use cautiously in clients with peptic ulcer disease
  117. chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
     a dopamine antagonist of the typical antipsychotic class of medications possessing additional antiadrenergic, antiserotonergic, anticholinergic and antihistaminergic properties used to treat schizophrenia

    Common side effect: Dry mouth and nasal stuffiness, Increased sensitivity to heat, Weight gain and constipation.

    Difficulty urinating - an anticholinergic reaction that may become a severe health problem unless treated
  118. atorvastatin (Lipitor)
    drug class known as statins, used for lowering blood cholesterol. It also stabilizes plaque and prevents strokes through anti-inflammation and other mechanisms

    grapefruit juice decreases the enzyme that breaks down atorvastatin

    Contraindicated: propranolol decreases the effectiveness of atorvastatin
  119. Hydromorphone hydrochloride (Dilaudid)
    narcotic analgesic used for moderate to severe pain
  120. Ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol)
    NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) used for short-term management of pain
  121. phenazopyridine (Pyridium)
    a chemical which, when excreted into the urine, has a local analgesic effect. It is often used to alleviate the pain, irritation, discomfort, or urgency caused by urinary tract infections, surgery, or injury to the urinary tract

    yellowish discoloration of skin or sclera indicates drug accumulation due to renal impairment            
  122. terazosin (Hytrin)
    an alpha one adrenergic blocker; used for treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy
  123. carbamazepine (Tegretol)
    anticonvulsant medication; also to relieve the agonizing pain of trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)

    Inform the anesthetist before surgery - amount of anesthetic may need to be reduced because client is on anticonvulsant

    interferes with action of hormonal contraceptives; client should use another form of birth control
  124. diazepam (Valium)
    used to treat anxiety, panic attacks, insomnia, seizures (including status epilepticus), muscle spasms (such as in tetanus cases), restless legs syndrome, alcohol withdrawal, benzodiazepine withdrawal, opiate withdrawal syndrome and Ménière's disease. It may also be used before certain medical procedures (such as endoscopies) to reduce tension and anxiety, and in some surgical procedures to induce amnesia
  125. naproxen sodium (Anaprox)
    NSAIDs can cause gastrointestinal bleeding

    alcohol increases risk of gastrointestinal bleeding

    should be taken with food, milk, or antacid to decrease gastrointestinal upset
  126. nifedipine (Procardia)
    calcium-channel blocker used as antihypertensive

    bradycardia (under 60 beats per minute) is untoward effect
  127. risperidone (Risperdal)
    an atypical antipsychotic drug which is mainly used to treat schizophrenia (including adolescent schizophrenia), schizoaffective disorder, the mixed and manic states associated with bipolar disorder, and irritability in people with autism.

    causes weight gain

    impairs body temperature regulation

    causes photosensitive reactions

    causes orthostatic hypotension
  128. Butorphanol tartrate (Stadol)
    synthetic opioid analgesic

    causes sedation

    decreases rate and depth of respirations

    diplopia and blurred vision are side effects
  129. cephalexin monohydrate (Keflex)
    Cefalexin is used to treat a number of infections including: otitis media, streptococcal pharyngitis, bone and joint infections, pneumonia, cellulitis, and urinary tract infections. It may be used to prevent bacterial endocarditis.

    Yogurt and acidophilus milk will help maintain normal intestinal flora, which may be altered by the Keflex
  130. Meglumine diatrizoate (Gastrografin)
     may be used as an alternative to barium sulfate for medical imaging of the gastrointestinal tract, such as upper gastrointestinal series and small bowel series. It is indicated for use in patients who are allergic to barium, or in cases where the barium might leak into the abdominal cavity. It does not coat the stomach/bowel lining as well as barium, so it is not used commonly for this purpose.
  131. Probenecid (Benemid)
    prevents the reoccurrence of gouty arthritis - gout
  132. Allopurinol (Aloprim)
    inhibits production of uric acid - gout
  133. Colchicine (Colsalide)
     to treat acute attack of gout

    1 mg q 2 hours until cumulative dose of 8 mg achieved
  134. trifluoperazine (Stelazine)
    an antipsychotic

    excreted in the breast milk; breast-feeding is contraindicated

    side effect is dry eyes; use artificial tears

    weight gain; patient should monitor calorie intake and exercise frequently; other side effects include extrapyramidal symptoms, urine retention, and dry mouth
  135. ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
     a second-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Its spectrum of activity includes most strains of bacterial pathogens responsible for respiratory, urinary tract, gastrointestinal, and abdominal infections

    Drink plenty of fluids - prevents crystalluria and stone formation

    multivitamin - do not take within 6 hours before ciprofloxacin

    do not take with milk or yogurt alone, decreases the absorption of ciprofloxacin; can ingest dietary sources of calcium

    may take with meals if gastric irritation occurs, but not required
  136. alprazolam (Xanax)

    should not be taken with alcoholic beverages
  137. Phenobarbital
    long-acting barbiturate and the most widely used anticonvulsant worldwide, and the oldest still commonly used
  138. cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
    used to treat cancers and autoimmune disorders such as MS

    usually develop alopecia four to five weeks after starting treatment (Advise the client to purchase a wig or a hairpiece.)
  139. chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
    Librium is an antianxiety

    Side effects: Drowsiness and blurred vision

    Additional side effects include constipation, slurred speech, dermatitis, anorexia, polyuria, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia; administer after meals or with milk to decrease GI irritation
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2014-02-27 15:57:32

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