Social Psychology Ch 1-4

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cfish4448
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259859
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Social Psychology Ch 1-4
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2014-02-02 20:15:30
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psychology
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Social Psychology Terms
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  1. The scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people
    Social Psychology
  2. The effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior
    Social Influence
  3. The aspects of people's personalities that make them different from other people
    Individual Differences
  4. The tendency to overestimate the extent to which people's behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors
    Fundamental Attribution Error
  5. A school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment
    Behaviorism
  6. The way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social world
    Construal
  7. A school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people's minds rather than the objective, physical attributes of the object
    Gestalt Psychology
  8. People's evaluations of their own self-worth; that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent
    Self-Esteem
  9. How people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgments and decisions
    Social Cognition
  10. What is the goal of Social Psychology?
    The goal of social psychology is to identify universal properties of human nature that make everyone susceptible to social influence, regardless of social class or culture
  11. The way in which an individual construes a situation is largely shaped by two basic human motives:
    the need to be accurate and the need to feel good about ourselves. Otherwise known as the Social Cognition Approach and the Self-Esteem Approach, respectively
  12. The tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occurred
    Hindsight Bias
  13. The technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior
    Observational Method
  14. The method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside, without imposing any preconceived notions they might have
    Ethnography
  15. The level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data; by showing that two or more judges independently come up with the same observations, researchers ensure that the observations are not the subjective, distorted impressions of one individual
    Interjudge Reliability
  16. A form of the observational method in which the researcher examines the accumulated documents, or archives, of a culture (e.g., diaries, novels, magazines, and newspapers)
    Archival Analysis
  17. The technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them (i.e., how much one can predict from the other) is assessed
    Correlational Method
  18. A statistical technique that assesses how well you can predict one variable from another--for example, how well you can predict people's weight from their height
    Correlation Coefficient
  19. Research in which a representative sample of people are asked (often anonymously) questions about their attitudes or behavior
    Surveys
  20. A way of ensuring that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample
    Random Selection
  21. The method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions and identical except for the independent variable (the one thought to have a causal effect on people's responses)
    Experimental Method
  22. A process ensuring that all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment; through random assignment, researchers can be relatively certain that differences in the participants' personalities or backgrounds are distributed evenly across conditions
    Random Assignment to Condition
  23. A number calculated with statistical techniques that tells researchers how likely it is that the results of their experiment occurred by chance and not because of the independent variable or variables; Results are significant (trustworthy) if the probability level is less than 5 in 100 that the results might be due to chance factors and not the independent variables studied
    Probability Level (p-value)
  24. Making sure that nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent variable; this is accomplished by controlling all extraneous variables and by randomly assigning people to different experimental conditions
    Internal Validity
  25. The extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people
    External Validity
  26. The extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life
    Psychological Realism
  27. A statistical technique that averages the results of two or more studies to see if the effect of an independent variable is reliable
    Meta-Analysis
  28. Studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question of why people behave as they do and that are conducted purely for reasons of intellectual curiosity
    Basic Research
  29. Studies designed to solve a particular social problem
    Applied Research
  30. Thinking that is nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless
    Automatic Thinking
  31. Mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember
    Schemas
  32. The extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people's minds and are therefore likely to be used when making judgments about the social world
    Accessibility
  33. The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept
    Priming
  34. The case wherein people have an expectation about what another person is like, which influences how they act toward that person, which causes that person to behave consistently with people's original expectations, making the expectations come true
    Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
  35. Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently
    Judgmental Heuristics
  36. A mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind
    Availability Heuristic
  37. A mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case
    Representativeness Heuristic
  38. Information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population
    Base Rate Information
  39. A type of thinking in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surrounding context; this type of thinking is common in Western cultures
    Analytic Thinking Style
  40. A type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context, particularly the ways in which objects relate to each other; this type of thinking is common in East Asian cultures
    Holistic Thinking Style
  41. Thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful
    Controlled Thinking
  42. Mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
    Counterfactual Thinking
  43. The fact that people usually have to much confidence in the accuracy of their judgments
    Overconfidence Barrier
  44. The study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people
    Social Perception
  45. The way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words
    Nonverbal Communication
  46. To express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling or patting someone on the back
    Encode
  47. To interpret the meaning of the nonverbal behavior other people express, such as deciding that a pat on the back was an expression of condescension and not kindness
    Decode
  48. A facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different emotion
    Affect Blend
  49. Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
    Display Rules
  50. Nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations--such as the OK sign
    Emblems
  51. A type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together; for example, many people believe that someone who is kind is generous as well
    Implicit Personality Theory
  52. A description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people's behavior
    Attribution Theory
  53. The inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person, such as attitude, character, or personality
    Internal Attribution
  54. The inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in; the assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that situation
    External Attribution
  55. A theory that states that to form an attribution about what caused a person's behavior, we systematically note the pattern between the presence or absence of possible causal factors and whether or not the behavior occurs
    Covariation Model
  56. Information about the extent to which other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does
    Consensus Information
  57. Information about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli
    Distinctiveness Information
  58. Information about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances
    Consistency Information
  59. The seeming importance of information that is the focus of people's attention
    Perceptual Salience
  60. Analyzing another person's behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behavior, after which one may adjust the original internal attribution
    Two-Step Process of Attribution
  61. Explanations for one's successes that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for one's failures that blame external, situational factors
    Self-Serving Attributions
  62. Explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality
    Defensive Attributions
  63. The tendency to think that other people are more susceptible to attributional biases in their thinking than we are
    Bias Blind Spot
  64. A form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people
    Belief in a Just World

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