CH 44 Sensory Systems

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Ivanneth
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259886
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CH 44 Sensory Systems
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2014-02-02 21:45:51
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chapter 44 denbow sensory systems
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Chapter 44 sensory systems red terms
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  1. Sensory receptors
    provide information from our internal and external environments that is crucial for survival and success
  2. ______ sense external stimuli
    exteroceptors
  3. _______ sense internal stimuli; usually simple
    Interoceptors
  4. 3 classes of receptors
    • Mechanoreceptors- stimulated by mechanical forces such as pressure
    • Chemoreceptors-detect chemicals or chemical changes
    • Energy-detecting receptors-react to electromagnetic and thermal energy ex: infrared heat
  5. Sensory information is conveyed to the _ _ _ and perceived in a ____ step process
    CNS (central nervous system) ; four
  6. 4 step process of perception
    • Stimulation
    • Transduction
    • Transmission
    • Interpretation
  7. Sensory cells respond to stimuli via _____-_____ ____ _____ in their membranes
    stimulus gated ion channels
  8. describe how sensory cells respond via stimulus gated ion channels
    • In most cases, a depolarization of the receptor cell occurs, which is analogous to the excitatory postsynaptic potential.
    • Referred to as "receptor potential"
  9. Cutaneous receptors
    respond to stimuli in between external and internal environments
  10. Nociceptors
    transmit impulses perceived as pain. Most consist of free nerve endings located throughout the body.
  11. Thermoreceptors
    • naked dendritic endings of sensory neurons that are sensitive to changes in temperature.
    • contain TRP ion channels that are responsive to hot and cold
  12. ________ ______ are located higher in the skin and are much more numerous then their counterpart.
    cold receptors vs. hot receptors
  13. Several types of _____ in the skin detect the sense of touch
    mechanoreceptors
  14. two types of mechanoreceptors
    • Phasic- intermittently activated
    • Tonic- continuously activated
  15. Baroreceptors
    • detect blood pressure
    • highly branched network located in the carotid sinus and the aortic arch
    • detect tension or stretch in the walls of these blood vessels
  16. Chemoreceptors
    can bind to particular chemicals in the extracellular fluid. Used in the senses of taste and smell. They are also important in monitoring the chemical composition of blood
  17. _____ begins with the capture of light energy by ______
    vision ; photoreceptors
  18. four phyla with well developed image forming eyes
    • annelids, mollusks, arthropods, chordates
    • they all evolved eye structure independently- convergent evolution
  19. Sclera
    white portion of the eye formed of tough connective tissue
  20. Cornea
    Transparent portion through which light enters; begins to focus light
  21. Iris
    Colored portion of the eye. contraction of iris muscles in bright light decreases the size of its opening, the pupil
  22. lens
    a transparent structure that completes focusing of light onto the retina
  23. the lens is attached to the _____ muscles by the _____ _____
    ciliary; suspensory ligament
  24. Rods
    • responsible fore black and white vision
    • most nermerous
  25. Cones
    • Responsible for color vision and high visual activity
    • trichromatic vision
  26. most rods and cones are located in the central region of the retina known as the ____
    fovea
  27. structure of rods and cones
    • inner segment rich in mitochondria and vesicles filled with neurotransmitter molecules.
    • connected by a narrow stalk, cilium, to the outer segments
    • this is packed with hundreds of disks which contain photopigments
  28. The elasmobranchs have electroreceptors call the _____ ___ L_______
    • ampullae of Lorenzi
    • can sense electrical currents.

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