evolution

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kaitiek09
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259914
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evolution
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2014-02-22 03:22:59
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evolution
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  1. evolution (typical)
    the scientific explanation for biodiversity
  2. Darwin evolution
    new things come from old and are different when they come from them (descent of modification)
  3. evolution
    change in intrinsic properties of a population (built in properties)
  4. pre-evolutionary ideas
    all organisms were individually created and they didn't change individually overtime
  5. evolutionary ideas
    organisms do change over time
  6. 2 important people involved in evolutionary ideas
    • lamarck
    • darwin
  7. 2 evolutionary ideas of lamarck
    • mutations arise b/c of need
    • individuals w/ beneficial mutations produce more offspring
  8. mutations arise b/c of mutations explained
    • if the organism needs a character they get it
    • mutations that are useful in the environment will arise in the organism (sometimes)
    • random arise of mutations in some individuals
  9. 2 evolutionary ideas of Darwin
    • mutations arise randomly w/ respect to their usefulness
    • individuals w/ beneficial mutations produce more offspring
  10. natural selection (2)
    • individuals with beneficial mutations produce more offspring
    • mutations arise randomly with respect to their usefulness
  11. mutations, whether they are good or bad, get sorted out overtime
  12. 3 requirements for evolution
    • variation must exist
    • variation must be heritable
    • mechanism for differential spread must exist
  13. 3 mechanisms of differential spread
    • random change causes evolution
    • movement of variation from one population to another
    • mating systems of a population
  14. adaptation
    a good fit between an organism (phenotype) and their environment
  15. difference between adaptation and evolution
    adaptation only arises by NS while evolution can arise in a variety of ways
  16. ultimate source of variation is mutations and recombination can add mutation on homologous X to a single X
  17. 2 types of recombination
    • chromosomal
    • sexual reproduction
  18. HW came up with a test to see if mendel was correct, he wasn't. However, these only apply if no evolution is occuring
  19. population of inference
    to study a group of things you want to know
  20. sample
    a subset of population of inference
  21. a sample is hard to draw inference from, it needs to be random in order to get good inference
  22. random sampling
    every individual of a population inference has an = chance of being in a sample
  23. bias sample
    only a few certain of a pop inference has an equal chance of being in a sample
  24. sample error
    difference between a measurement taken on a random sample and the same measurement taken on population of inference
  25. the sampling error is inversely proportional,
    • the bigger the sample the less of an error
    • the smaller the sample the bigger the error
  26. sampling error only applies from random sample
  27. effect of finite population size and allele frequencies
    genetic drift
  28. in finite pop size each new gene is a random sample of the previous gene pool which might look different from the previous generation
  29. large and diff changes in finite pop size overtime will cause changes which may lead to being fixed or changes in the allele frequency
  30. pop outcome is less variation overtime if genetic drift is occuring
  31. 5 characters of Genetic drift (random process)
    • causes evolution
    • reduces and eliminates (w/in a pop) variation
    • drift is greater in small pop, will lose variation overtime
    • increases between pop genetic variation
  32. between pop variation meaning
    the gene pool has similar ps and qs, shares the same alleles at the same frequency
  33. between pop variation start = 0
    there is no difference in the beginning
    however it goes up over time (variation)
    it continues until no genetic variability left
  34. allele freq for species as a whole
    if isolated individuals overtime preserves variation they save more variation than they do when in a population as a whole
  35. c
  36. gene
    chunk of DNA
  37. locus
    spot on the X where the gene is
  38. allele
    one or more forms of a gene
  39. founder effect
    change in allele freq caused by founding a new pop with a small # of individuals
  40. 4 examples of the founder effect
    • ellis van crevald
    • hemophilia
    • cohen syndrome
    • 5-alpha-reductive deficiency
  41. ellis van crevald
    genetic disease (homo) such as deformities, heart complications, dwarfism, etc.
  42. small pop increases in genetic diseases, but why is it not vice versa
    ascertainment bias
  43. ascertainment bias
    easier to see an increase than to see a decrease in these rare alleles, so we only study those that are in a society
  44. 3 reasons why selection doesn't eliminate non-favorable diseases that are genetic and recessive
    alleles can hide in a heterozygote
  45. random mate
    probability of mating with an individual vs mating w/ a different individual
  46. inbreeding
    when relative mate, or some aspect of relative mating
  47. assertive mating
    individuals w/ similar phenol are more likely to mate that you would expect by chance alone
  48. disassortive mating
    individuals w/different phenol mate more than expected by chance alone
  49. inbreeding increases homozygotes which causes more recessive alleles to come out
  50. identical by dissent
    identical due to being descend from a single gene in the past
  51. identity in state
    identical in state but different bc they come from different genes of the past
  52. autozygote
    3 individual with both copies of a gene, identical by dissent
  53. in order to see if genes go to another gene you
    will need to get a pedigree
  54. inbreeding coefficient f
    probability of hetero of one individual
  55. inbreeding coefficient F
    • probability of the pop being hetero
    • *can only be calculated from pedigrees*
  56. inbreeding depression
    decrease in fitness in an inbreeding pop
  57. 2 causes of inbred depression
    • increase homo for recessive deleterious alleles at a few loci, not all loci same
    • decrease hetero at most or all loci
  58. as the environment changes, what will happen when it comes to the organism and their being in the environment
    mutations will arise that are beneficial in the environment
  59. mutations that are useful in the environment will arise in the organisms only in some if needed
  60. beneficial mutations will arise while non-beneficial mutations will disappear
  61. evolution requirements is used to
    bring rare forms of a trait to become common and common to become rare
  62. recombination function
    takes different copies of a X and mixes them up to create variation
  63. variation arise due to the environment because of need
  64. the results of the replica plating experiment
    shows that antibiotic resistance pre-existed before its exposure to antibiotic
  65. genotype
    a set of alleles that individuals have at every one or more loci
  66. it only takes 1 gen to get the hardy Weinberg theorem in alleles, but 2 in genotypes
  67. HW is only applicable if no other force is acting upon it
    Genetic drift is the same as well
  68. sampling error is also the chance it will be random from population if inference
  69. genetic drift cause by finite pop is
    change in allele frequency
  70. finite pop causes evolution
  71. all real pop evolve by genetic drift
  72. GD eliminates variation in a pop
  73. less variation in an organism means the organism will be less likely to adapt to their environment
  74. isolated populations overtime preserve variation more than populations that are all grouped together
  75. homozygosity will go up is there is inbreeding
  76. do inbreds have more problems than individuals who do not interbreed
    they are around an even amount, highly inbred individuals are the same fitness as those that are not inbred
  77. if you are auto then you are less fit, you may suffer from inbreeding depression
  78. why do we still have deleterious alleles in a pop
    because those alleles hide in heterozygotes, if a pop starts to inbreed then the more homozygotes for the allele increases causing the deleterious alleles to appear in a population
  79. if negative slope
    inbreeding depression
  80. if positive slope
    no inbreeding depression
  81. Ideal individuals
    assumptions made
    • finite constant pop size
    • poisson distribution production of offspring
    • hardy weinberg
  82. problems with ideal individuals (2)
    • there are no ideal individuals
    • pop size is not always constant
  83. poisson distribution production of offspring depends on whether or not they produce offspring
  84. effective pop size
    is the equivalent # of ideal individuals that will accumulate inbreeding at the rate real pop accumulate inbreeding
  85. pop bottle neck
    sharp reduction in size of a pop due to environmental random events
  86. founder effect
    the reduced genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors.
  87. inbreeding of pop is inversely proportional to effective pop size
  88. is it possible effective pop size to be smaller than the actual pop size
    F
  89. a pop that doesn't inbreed will have an increase in effective pop size than the actual pop size
  90. inbreeding does not cause the loss of alleles, finite pop (drift) size loses alleles
  91. gene flow
    movement of genes from one pop to another
  92. gene flow with genetic drift take a long time before variation is lost and alleles become fixed
    sometimes pop gene flow move together to go through variation similarly to each other
  93. how is gene flow opposite from genetic drift
    because gene flow causes allele frequency changes and it increases in genetic variation why GD gets rid of variation
  94. (2) direct methods of measuring gene flow
    • experimental studies
    • observational studies
  95. experimental studies
    studies in which the environment gets manipulated
  96. Pros of direct methods of measuring gene flow (2)
    • inexpensive and easy
    • estimate current gene flow
  97. Cons of direct methods of measuring gene flow (4)
    • manipulation may effect results
    • movement is not necessarily gene flow
    • hard to measure rare gene flow
    • estimate current gene flow
  98. Gene flow increase
    Gene flow decrease
    • pop should be similar genetically
    • pop should not be similar genetically
  99. Fst
    means diff in allele freq among pop
  100. variance
    the difference in pop average squared deviation from the mean
  101. p (with line over)
    average p fir the whole set of pop maximum possible value the different could be
  102. this kind of mating increase homozygosity and decrease hetero
    decrease homo and increases hetero
    • assertive mating
    • dis-assertive mating
  103. hetero is more fit than homo because
  104. they are more fit
  105. you can never get a steady state when it comes to inbreeding because you cant select against them
    you cant favor good genes after getting rid of bad genes
  106. inbreeding + selection do what to alleles
    decrease allele freq selection
  107. you can drive an allele into low freq but they will never be fully eliminated due to hetero
  108. due to all pop being finite and all other forces occurring at the same time...
    all pop have GD going on
  109. non-random mating occurs by these 3
    • inbreeding
    • assertive mating
    • dis assertive mating
  110. inbreeding occurs most in what kind of pop
    finite pop
  111. inbreeding cause evolution only in the sense that
    of it changing genotype
  112. why is the first cause of inbreeding being bad the most important
    bc how we detect how a pop has inbreeding depression
  113. how does a stead state occur in a graph comparing inbreeding and noninbreeding pop
    the graph may be at a negative slope until the alleles overtime even themselves out to create a steady state
  114. inbreeding changes geno freq but not allele freq
  115. Selection eliminates recessive deleterious alleles after a while which causes the flattening out

  116. Homozygote when it comes to autozygote = not identical by dissent but is identical

  117. When youre at HW you stay there so your Allele freq don’t change ever, but geno may change around 1 gen
  118. some selfing plants purge their deleterious alleles which causes them to be at a steady state when graphed compared to non inbreeding organisms
  119. hetero is always better at every locus which means
    all alleles are rr deleterious alleles, are more fit than you know
  120. just because you can select against the homo alleles suggests that you can get rid of them

    lost alleles is due to selection getting rid of them
  121. inbreeding plus selection causes a change in allele freq, inbreeding cant act alone
  122. with assertive mating no change in allele freq for the loci
  123. increase in homo in assertive mating when it comes to geno freq
  124. when inbreeding goes on, you expect homo in every loci
    while in assertive you expect an increase in homo for loci effecting the mate choice trait
  125. in dis assertive mating it causes a decrease in homo for
    loci affecting the mate choice trait
  126. 1 difference in allele freq of assertive and dis
    • assertive have no allele freq change
    • dis changes allele freq
  127. assortive redistributes alleles but does not affect freq
  128. in disassortive mating individuals that look for common mates is harder then trying to find a different mate which causes allele freq to
    move toward the middle (50/50 or an even amount when divided between them)
  129. random mating in a small pop can cause
    • inbreeding
    • ex gazelles, 4 pop, mate with who ever to increase heard
  130. how to cal the amount of inbreeding you will get
    F = 1-(1-1/2N)^t
  131. small pop have inbreeding occur which will lead to inbreeding depression at a faster rate
    small pop will also have GD causing a lack of variation to occur within the pop
  132. mutations that decrease inbreeding may cause
    an increase in effective pop size
  133. each individual has the same probability of chance reproducing but they don't always reproduce
  134. decrease rate of inbreeding by equalizing the # of individuals reproducing
  135. behaviors that increase inbreeding will decrease the effective pop size and vice versa
  136. if you equalize the amount of reproduction among individuals you will double the effective pop size
    the cut the rate in half of the accumulation of inbreeding
  137. in an ideal pop of r
  138. finite pop causes accumulation of inbreeding and loss of alleles, not inbreeding alone.
  139. if p1=p2
    if p1>p2
    if p2>p1
    • there will be no change in each other
    • they will go up as one goes down so they can make themselves more similar to each other
  140. _______has the property of making pops become more similar
    gene flow
  141. finite pop size causes these 2
    • causes alleles to become lost in a pop
    • causes individuals to be more auto (inbreeding)
  142. drift causes the loss of alleles not inbreeding
  143. finite pop = drift

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