Unit 3: Power Review

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lawrencem
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Unit 3: Power Review
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2014-02-03 13:25:42
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Use these flashcards to review for the Unit 3: Power test in Human Body Systems.
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  1. portion labeled a where the energy is stored.
    phosphate
  2. portion labeled b, one of the nitrogenous bases.
    adenine
  3. portion labeled c, a 5 carbon sugar.
    ribose
  4. sum of all chemical activity in an organism
    metabolism
  5. the amount of calories a person would burn doing nothing all day
    BMR-basal metabolic rate
  6. a calculation of body health that only takes into account the weight and height of a person.
    BMI-body mass index
  7. maintenance of a stable internal environment
    homeostasis
  8. enzyme that breaks down fats into fatty acids and glyceron
    lipase
  9. an enzyme that breaks down proteins into peptides in the stomach
    pepsin
  10. enzymes that break down dissaccharides into monosaccharides
    sucrase, maltase, lactase
  11. enzyme in the mouth and pancreas that break down starch into dissaccharides
    amylase
  12. a process that adds water to break down large molecules into smaller ones
    hydrolysis / catabolism
  13. a process that removes water to build larger molecules from smaller ones
    anabolism / dehydration synthesis / condensation
  14. a biological catalyst, most of the time a protein that speeds up the rate of chemical reactions in a living organism
    enzyme
  15. mastication, peristalsis, churning and dehydration are all examples of this.
    mechanical digestion
  16. enzymatic breakdown is an example of this type of digestion
    chemical
  17. structure labeled a site of mastication and initial chemical digestion of carbohydrates, makes a bolus to swallow
    mouth
  18. labeled b. largest internal organ, produces bile for the chemical digestion of lipids, prepares nitrogen wastes for disposal, and detoxifies poisonous chemicals in the blood.
    liver
  19. labeled c. muscular sac in which excess bile from the liver is stored
    gallbladder
  20. labeled d. organ divided into cecum, ascending, transverse, descending and rectum, absorbs water and forms feces
    colon or large intestine
  21. labeled e. eliminates solid waste, defecation
    anus
  22. labeled f. muscular tube that connects the pharynx with the stomach and does peristalsis
    esophagus
  23. labeled g. saclike expansion, strong complex muscular wall that churns food and is initial site of chemical digestion of proteins
    stomach
  24. labeled h. secretes the majority of digestive enzymes into small intestine, also secretes hormones for sugar regulation into the blood
    pancreas
  25. labeled i. connects the stomach with the colon, consists of duodenum, jejunum and ileum, finishes chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients from food.
    small intestine
  26. c. volume of air remaining in lungs after a forced breath out
    residual volume
  27. b. the total amount of air that can be forced out of the lungs after a normal exhale
    expiratory reserve volume
  28. a. the volume of air that can be forced in after a normal breath in
    inspiratory reserve volume
  29. g. The volume of air breathed in and out without conscious effort
    tidal volume
  30. passive transport that allows oxygen to move from the alveoli of the lungs into the capillaries and from the capillaries to the cells of the body
    diffusion
  31. flow of oxygen from the outside to the alveoli
    pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles, alveoli
  32. which lung has 3 lobes
    right
  33. how many lobes does the left lung have?
    2
  34. formula for cellular respiration
    C6H12O2 + 6O2 --> 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy
  35. what happens to the diaphragm when we inhale
    it contracts and moves inferiorly
  36. what happens to the diaphragm when we exhale?
    it relaxes and moves superiorly
  37. a. cartilagenous structure that houses the vocal cords and has an epiglottis above it.
    larynx
  38. b. spongy structure that holds air
    lung
  39. c. small branches within the lungs that carry air from the bronchi to the alveoli
    bronchioles
  40. d. smooth muscle structure that helps with inhalation and exhalation.
    diaphragm
  41. e. connects the nose to the mouth
    pharynx
  42. f. cartilagenous structure that passes air from the larynx to the bronchi
    trachea
  43. h. cartilagenous tubes that branch off of the trachea to each lung.
    bronchus (pl. bronchi)
  44. j. small sacs at the end of each bronchiole where gas exchange between the respiratory and circulatory system occurs
    alviolus (pl. alveoli)
  45. hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that controls reabsorption of water in the nephrons of the kidneys
    ADH-antidiuretic hormone
  46. hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that controls the reabsorption of sodium in the nephrons of the kidneys.
    aldosterone
  47. order of urine from the collecting duct to the outside of the body
    renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
  48. chemical that inhibits the release of ADH and causes the nephrons of the kidneys to excrete water
    alcohol
  49. a. location of reabsoption of NaCl, water, K+ and HCO3
    Distal convoluted tubule
  50. b. site of secretion of urea, water, NaCl, K+, creatinine
    collecting duct
  51. c. where RBC, WBC, and platelets leave the glomerulus
    efferent arteriole
  52. d. where whole blood enters the glomerulus to be filtered
    afferent arteriole
  53. e. ball of capillaries, site of filtration
    glomerulus
  54. f. capsule that surrounds the glomerulus and serves as the first site of the filtrate
    Bowman's capsule
  55. g. where whole blood comes into the nephron
    renal artery
  56. i. collect filtered blood to return to circulation
    renal vein
  57. j. site of reabsorption of water and NaCl, part of nephron that extends into the renal medulla
    loop of Henle
  58. functional unit of the kidney
    nephron
  59. part of the hypothalamus that regulates the amount of water in the blood
    osmoreceptors
  60. list of things that are reabsorbed into the blood
    water, NaCl, HCO3, K+, glucose
  61. list of things that are secreted into the urine
    water, NaCl, creatinine, urea, K+
  62. part of the kidney that includes the glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, and proximal and distal convoluted tubule
    renal cortex
  63. part of the kidney that houses the collecting duct and loop of Henle
    renal medulla
  64. sequence of filtrate through the nephron
    Bowman's capsule --> proximal convoluted tubule --> loop of Henle --> distal convoluted tubule --> collecting duct
  65. sequence of blood through the nephron
    • renal¬†artery --> afferent arteriole -->efferent arteriole -->peritubular capillaries --> renal
    • vein
  66. part of urinalysis that test for color and clarity
    macroscopic examination
  67. part of urinalysis that tests for pH, glucose, ketones, specific gravity and proteins
    chemical analysis
  68. part of urinalysis that tests for RBC, WBC, crystals and bacteria
    microscopic analysis

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