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Basic research 4
- basic principles
Correlational methods 3
- measure two variables that naturally occur
- are they related?
- example: test score and study time
Experimental methods 3
- manipulate a variable
- assess the outcome
- example: pain ratings and amount of medication
What is research?
Published study which addresses an empirical question
A statement about the causal relationship between two variables
actively seeking out tests that could prove their theories wrong
4 canons of philosophy
- 1. Determinism
- 2. Empiricism
- 3. Parsimony
- 4. Testabiltiy
chaos does not rule the universe, it has order and things happen for a reason
Understanding through observation
The best theory is a simple theory, avoid unnecessary concepts
Theories should be testable using research techniques
Define terms of a theory in a way that can be observed and tested
What is experimental psychology?
Scientific study of human behavior that emphasizes scientific techniques.
When, where, and how was experimental psychology developed?
Germany, mid 1800s, sensory approach
Illusory correlation 2
- Thinking there is a correlation when there really isn't
- example: pretty people are nicer
Superstitious conditioning 2
- Thinking something happens because of something you do
- example: pigeons hopping on one leg and food getting dispensed
conditions under which a theory is true or not
- a prediction
- derived from theories
- start with observations and data, then build to general theories
- go from specific to general
- example: at the end the night at a bar, males are more attracted to females so their standards are lowered
3 problems with induction
- 1. how do you know when you've made enough observations?
- 2. your observations may discredit your theory (Hume says you never make enough observations)
- 3. can't develop laws
- develop hypotheses from a theory
- go from general to specific
- example: no human is perfect. pat is human so he is not perfect
3 approaches to hypothesis testing
- 1. validation
- 2. falsification
- 3. qualification
gathering evidence to support your theory
3 problems with validation approach
- 1. positive test bias (behavioral confirmation)
- 2. testing in a way to support theory
- 3. failing to acknowledge problems
gathering evidence that disconfirms theory
qualification approach 2
- identifying boundary conditions for a theory
- use of validation and falsification
Why is theory development impossible without the canon of determinism?
a theory is useless without the notion that the universe has order
Why are theories valuable?
to predict future events