Research Methods Exam 1

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Author:
nthor
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259987
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Research Methods Exam 1
Updated:
2014-02-03 11:36:39
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Research
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Exam 1
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  1. Basic research 4
    • basic principles
    • detailed
    • invasive
    • hardcore
  2. Applied research 2
    • help others
    • solutions
  3. Correlational methods 3
    • measure two variables that naturally occur
    • are they related?
    • example: test score and study time
  4. Experimental methods 3
    • manipulate a variable
    • assess the outcome
    • example: pain ratings and amount of medication
  5. What is research?
    Published study which addresses an empirical question
  6. Theory
    A statement about the causal relationship between two variables
  7. Falsifiability
    actively seeking out tests that could prove their theories wrong
  8. 4 canons of philosophy
    • 1. Determinism
    • 2. Empiricism
    • 3. Parsimony
    • 4. Testabiltiy
  9. Determinism
    chaos does not rule the universe, it has order and things happen for a reason
  10. Empiricism
    Understanding through observation
  11. Parsimony
    The best theory is a simple theory, avoid unnecessary concepts
  12. Testability
    Theories should be testable using research techniques
  13. Operational definitions
    Define terms of a theory in a way that can be observed and tested
  14. What is experimental psychology?
    Scientific study of human behavior that emphasizes scientific techniques.
  15. When, where, and how was experimental psychology developed?
    Germany, mid 1800s, sensory approach
  16. Illusory correlation 2
    • Thinking there is a correlation when there really isn't
    • example: pretty people are nicer
  17. Superstitious conditioning 2
    • Thinking something happens because of something you do
    • example: pigeons hopping on one leg and food getting dispensed
  18. Boundary conditions
    conditions under which a theory is true or not
  19. Hypothesis 3
    • a prediction
    • derived from theories
    • testable
  20. Induction 3
    • start with observations and data, then build to general theories
    • go from specific to general
    • example: at the end the night at a bar, males are more attracted to females so their standards are lowered
  21. 3 problems with induction
    • 1. how do you know when you've made enough observations?
    • 2. your observations may discredit your theory (Hume says you never make enough observations)
    • 3. can't develop laws
  22. Deduction 3
    • develop hypotheses from a theory
    • go from general to specific
    • example: no human is perfect. pat is human so he is not perfect
  23. 3 approaches to hypothesis testing
    • 1. validation
    • 2. falsification
    • 3. qualification
  24. validation approach
    gathering evidence to support your theory
  25. 3 problems with validation approach
    • 1. positive test bias (behavioral confirmation)
    • 2. testing in a way to support theory
    • 3. failing to acknowledge problems
  26. falsification approach
    gathering evidence that disconfirms theory
  27. qualification approach 2
    • identifying boundary conditions for a theory
    • use of validation and falsification
  28. Why is theory development impossible without the canon of determinism?
    a theory is useless without the notion that the universe has order
  29. Why are theories valuable?
    to predict future events

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