Math Test 1 Review

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ctbty
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259989
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Math Test 1 Review
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2014-02-03 12:28:44
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Math
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Chapters 1,2, and 9
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  1. population (1.1)
    the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest
  2. sample (1.1)
    subset, or part, of a population
  3. In a recent survey, 1500 adults in the US were asked if they thought there was solid evidence of global warming. 855 of the adults said yes. Identify the population and the sample. Describe the sample data set. (1.1)
    The population consists of the responses of all adults in the US, and the sample consists of the responses of the 1500 adults in the US in the survey. The sample is  subset of the responses of all adults in the US. The sample data set consists of 855 yes's and 645 no's.
  4. parameter (1.1)
    a numerical description of a population characteristic
  5. statistic (1.1)
    a numerical description of a sample characteristic
  6. A recent survey of 200 college career centers reported that the avg starting salary for petroleum engineering majors is $83,121. Decide whether the numerical value describes a population parameter or a sample statistic. Explain your reasoning. (1.1)
    B/c the avg of $83,121 is based on a subset of the population, it is a sample statistic.
  7. The 2182 students who accepted admission offers to Northwestern University in 2009 have an avg SAT score of 1442. Decide whether the numerical value describes a population parameter or a sample statistic. Explain your reasoning. (1.1)
    B/c the SAT score of 1442 is based on all the students who accepted admission offers in 2009, it is a population parameter.
  8. In a random check of a sample of retail stores, the FDA found that 34% of the stores were not storing fish at the proper temp. Decide whether the numerical value describes a population parameter or a sample statistic. Explain your reasoning. (1.1)
    B/c the % of 34% is based on a subset of the population, it is a sample statistic.
  9. descriptive statistics (1.1)
    the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data
  10. inferential statistics (1.1)
    the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population; a basic tool in this study is probability
  11. A large sample of men, aged 48, was studies for 18 years. For unmarried men, approx. 70% were alive at age 65. For married men, 90% were alive at age 65. Decide which part of the study represents the descriptive branch of statistics. What conclusions might be drawn from the study using inferential statistics? (1.1)
    Descriptive statistics involves statements such as "For unmarried me, approx. 70% were alive at age 65" and "For married men, 90% were alive at 65." A possible inference drawn from the study is that being married is associated w/ a longer life for men.
  12. In a sample of Wall Street analysis, the percentage who incorrectly forecasted high-tech earnings in a recent yr was 44%. Decide which part of the study represents the descriptive branch of statistics. What conclusions might be drawn from the study using inferential statistics? (1.1)
    The part of this study that represents the descriptive branch of statistics involves the statement "the percentage [of Wall Street analysis] who incorrectly forecasted high-tech earnings in a recent yr was 44%." A possible inference drawn from the study is that the stock market is difficult to forecast, even for pros.
  13. qualitative data (1.2)
    consists of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries
  14. quantitative data (1.2)
    consists of numerical measurements or counts
  15. **The suggested retail prices of several Ford vehicles are sown in the table. Which data are qualitative data and which are quantitative data? Explain your reasoning. (1.2)

    Model - Suggested retail price
    The info shown in the table can be
  16. observational study
    when a researcher observes and measures characteristics of interest of part of a population but does not change existing conditions
  17. experiment
    when a treatment  is applied to part of a population and responses are observed
  18. simulation
    the use of mathematical or physical model to reproduce the conditions of a situation or process
  19. survey
    an investigation of 1 or more characteristics of a population
  20. confounding variable
    occurs when a experimenter can't tell the difference b/w the effects of diff factors on a variable
  21. blinding
    a technique where the subjects don't know whether they are receiving a treatment or a placebo
  22. placebo effect
    occurs when a subject reacts favorably to a placebo when in fact the subject has been given no medicated treatment at all
  23. double-blind experiment
    where neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are receiving a treatment or a placebo
  24. randomization
    a process of randomly assigning subjects to diff treatment groups
  25. completely randomized design
    where subjects are assigned to diff treatment groups thru random selection
  26. blocks
    groups of subjects w/ similar characteristics
  27. randomized block design
    when subjects w/ similar characteristics are divided into blocks, and then, w/in each block, subjects are randomly assigned to treatment groups
  28. matched-pairs design
    where subjects are paired up according to a similarity
  29. sample size
    the number of subjects
  30. replication
    the repetition of an experiment under the same or similar conditions
  31. census
    a count of measure of an entire population
  32. sampling
    a count or measure of part of a population
  33. sampling error
    the difference b/w the results of a sample and those of the population
  34. random sample
    a sample in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
  35. simple random sample
    a sample in which every possible sample of the same size has the same chance of being selected
  36. stratified sample
    used when it is important for the sample to have members from each segment of the population
  37. cluster sample
    used when the population falls into naturally occurring subgroups, each having similar characteristics
  38. systematic sample
    a sample in which each member of the population is assigned a number
  39. convenience sample
    consists only of available members of the population

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