A&P Quiz 4

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A&P Quiz 4
2014-02-12 19:24:08

A&P Quiz 4
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  1. Larynx
    • Located at top of trachea
    • Also called voice box
    • Connects respiratory and articulatory systems 
    • Allows for increase in pressure to cough, sneeze, and lift
    • Closes vocal folds to keep anything but air from entering the lungs
    • Helps create trunk stability
  2. Phonation
    • Generation of voiced sound
    • Produced in Larynx as result of vibrating vocal folds
    • Respiration provides air source
  3. Cognates
    Two sounds that are produced the same way but one is voiced and one is not
  4. Tracheal Rings
    • There is connective tissue between the rings
    • They are not complete rings
    • Esophagus is behind and i pushes forward when swallowing
  5. Laryngeal Cartilages
    • Epiglottis
    • Thyroid
    • Corniculate
    • Arytenoid
    • Cricoid
  6. Cricoid Cartilage
    • Foundation of the Larynx
    • Located at the top of the tracheal rings
    • Complete circle that resembles a signet ring (thin in front; wide in back)
    • Connects with Thyroid cartilage
  7. Thyroid Cartilage
    • Largest and most prominent of the laryngeal cartilages 
    • wing shaped
    • Prominent notch at the fon called thyroid notch (Adam's apple)
    • Sweeps up into superior horn
    • Sweeps down into inferior horn
    • Cricothyroid Joint: where thyroid and cricoid connect to allow movement which stretches vocal folds; occurs at the inferior horn
    • When thyroid tilts forward and cricoid back at the cricothyroid joint the vocal folds are lengthened and pitch is raised
    • When thyroid tilt back and cricoid forward vocal folds are shortened and pitch is lowered
    • Vocal folds attached anteriorly on inside of thyroid
  8. Arytenoid Cartilages
    • Two cartilages on back top of cricoid cartilage
    • Pyramid shaped (3 sides and a base)
    • Rock and glide at cricoarytenoid joint
    • Movement causes vocal folds to adduct (close) and abduct (open)
    • Vocal Process: forward movement of arytenoid; where the posterior part of the vocal folds attach
    • Muscular Process: muscles responsible for moving arytenoid process laterally attach here; muscles that open and close the vocal folds; very small-at the bottom of arytenoids
    • Apex: Top portion of arytenoid cartilage
  9. Corniculate Cartilages
    • Sit on apex of arytenoids
    • Works with arytenoids
    • Allow arytenoids to rock and glide
    • Pull tight when arytenoids pull tight
    • Occurs at cricoarytenoid joint and helps to open and close arytenoids.
  10. Epiglottis
    • Not important for speech
    • Leaf shaped
    • Sits above thyroid at the root of the tongue and corpus of hyoid bone
    • Covers larynx and vocal folds when swallowing (protective structure; food passes overtop and enters the esophagus)
  11. Hyoid Bone
    • Not a laryngeal cartilage
    • Union of the tongue and larynx (considered part of the tongue complex)
    • U shaped with the opening pointing towards the back
    • Single bone; only bone in body not attached to another bone
    • 6 muscles attach to bone
  12. Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles
    • Muscles within the Larynx
    • Open, close, tense, and relax the vocal folds
  13. Posterior Cricoarytenoid
    • Flat muscles 
    • Originate at back wall of cricoid cartilage
    • Insert into muscular process of arytenoid
    • Major muscle for pulling arytenoid apart and opening the vocal folds
  14. Lateral Cricoarytenoid Muscles
    • Originate at side of cricoid cartilage
    • Insert into muscular process of arytenoid cartilages 
    • Major muscle that pulls on arytenoids to close vocal folds
  15. Positions of Cartilages