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  1. What are bones for ?
    • Harbors bone marrow
    • Protects fleshy parts of the body
    • Protects organs
  2. Bones are a reservoir for what type of ions ?
    Calcium , phosphate and other ions
  3. What are the three different cell types found in bone ?
    • Osteocytes
    • Osteoblasts 
    • Osteclasts
  4. What are the two ways that bones arise ?
    • Intramembranous ossification
    • Endochondral ossification
  5. How is a bone fracture repaired ?
    Proliferation of periosteal cells and endosteal cells
  6. How is bone tissue prepare for observing ?
    • Bone is grounded -organic material lost
    • Decalcification , sectioning , and staining
  7. What is used to remove the calcium from bones ?
    • EDTA 
    • HCL
    • 5% Nitric Acid
  8. What are the three regions of long bones ?
    Epiphysis -Metaphysis -Diaphysis-
  9. What are the components of the Bone ? ( 7 of them)
    • Bone Tissue 
    • Tendon Insertion 
    • Ligamentous attachments
    • Muscle nerves
    • Bone Marrow
    • Periosteum
    • Endosteum
  10. How much does the inorganic material of the bone matrix make the dry weight  ( %) ?
  11. What makes up the inorganic matter of the Bone matrix ?
    Calcium , phosphorus , bicarbonate citrate , magnesium , potassium , and sodium.

    Hydroxyapatite crystals
  12. What is the hydration shell of the bone matrix ?
    It facilitates the exchange of ions between crystal and body fluids
  13. What is bone ashing ?
    When is bone is dried and stripped of organic substituents.
  14. What is percent of collagen in bones ?
    95% Type I collagen and Amorphous ground substance
  15. What are the layers of periosteum and endosteum ?
    They are the inner and outer layers of bone. They provide a supply of new osteoblasts and they provide nutrition for osseous tissue.
  16. What does periosteum cover ?
    It covers the outer layer collagen fibers and fibroblasts  and inner layer of osteoprogenitor cells
  17. What does the endosteum cover ?
    Lines the inner surface of bone , it is made of osteoprogenitor cells and C.T.
  18. What are the three types of bone tissue ?
    • Compact 
    • Spongy 
    • Primary Bone Tissue
  19. What can compact  bone be found ?
    It has less cavities and can be found in the Diaphysis
  20. Where can you find spongy bone ?
    • There is interconnecting cavities 
    • Metaphysis 
    • Found in the Calvaria (Skull)
  21. Where can primary bone tissue be found ? Discuss some off it make up ?
    • Immature or woven bone
    • Irregular array of collagen
    • It decreases minerals and increases osteocytes
  22. What is secondary bones ? Where is it found ?
    • Variety found in adults 
    • Collagen fibers arranged in lamellae 
    • Parallel arrangement : cancellous or spongy bone
  23. What are osteoblasts ? Where are they located ?
    • They make bone , organic part of bone
    • On the surface of bone tissue 
    • Osteoid or prebone
  24. What are osteoblasts called when they become trapped in bone ?
  25. What are osteoclasts ? Where can it be found ?
    • Large cells that reabsorption of bone
    • Howship's Lacunae
    • Derived from blood derived -monocytes
  26. Do osteoclasts have an acidophilic or basophilic cytoplasm ? Does it increase lysosomes ?
    • Acidophilic
    • Yes ,  it increases
  27. What is the histochemical reaction for osteoclasts and osteoblasts ? ( Acid phosphatases or Alkaline phosphatases)
    • Osteoclasts = Acid phosphatases 
    • Osteoblasts = Alkaline phosphatases
  28. Why do osteoclast have a well developed golgi apparatus ?
    This is because of secretion of : acid collagenase, protelytic enzymes.
  29. What intramembranous ossification ?
    It is where flat bones (Skull/Calvaria) are developed from mesenchymal tissue
  30. Explain the process of intramembranous ossification ?
    Mesenchymal cells > blastema >osteoprogenitor cells >osteoblasts , primary bone tissue > fusion of ossification centers
  31. What is endochondral ossification ? Explain the process ?
    It is the production of Cartilage 

    Hypotrophy and destruction of chondrocytes , then osteoprogenitor cell penetrate capillaries left by degenerating chondrocytes
  32. Where does longitudinal growth of long bones take place ?
    Epiphyseal plate
  33. What is growth in the long bone diameter called ?
    Apposition /Resorption
  34. Explain the process of repairing a bone fracture ?
    • Blood Clot
    • Macrophage take tissue
    • Periosteum and endosteum activate
    • Endochondral and intramembranous ossification
    • Bone callus is made
    • Callus is replaced by lamellar bone
Card Set:
2014-02-07 02:44:02

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