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What are bones for ?
- Harbors bone marrow
- Protects fleshy parts of the body
- Protects organs
Bones are a reservoir for what type of ions ?
Calcium , phosphate and other ions
What are the three different cell types found in bone ?
What are the two ways that bones arise ?
- Intramembranous ossification
- Endochondral ossification
How is a bone fracture repaired ?
Proliferation of periosteal cells and endosteal cells
How is bone tissue prepare for observing ?
- Bone is grounded -organic material lost
- Decalcification , sectioning , and staining
What is used to remove the calcium from bones ?
What are the three regions of long bones ?
Epiphysis -Metaphysis -Diaphysis-
What are the components of the Bone ? ( 7 of them)
- Bone Tissue
- Tendon Insertion
- Ligamentous attachments
- Muscle nerves
- Bone Marrow
How much does the inorganic material of the bone matrix make the dry weight ( %) ?
What makes up the inorganic matter of the Bone matrix ?
Calcium , phosphorus , bicarbonate citrate , magnesium , potassium , and sodium.
What is the hydration shell of the bone matrix ?
It facilitates the exchange of ions between crystal and body fluids
What is bone ashing ?
When is bone is dried and stripped of organic substituents.
What is percent of collagen in bones ?
95% Type I collagen and Amorphous ground substance
What are the layers of periosteum and endosteum ?
They are the inner and outer layers of bone. They provide a supply of new osteoblasts and they provide nutrition for osseous tissue.
What does periosteum cover ?
It covers the outer layer collagen fibers and fibroblasts and inner layer of osteoprogenitor cells
What does the endosteum cover ?
Lines the inner surface of bone , it is made of osteoprogenitor cells and C.T.
What are the three types of bone tissue ?
- Primary Bone Tissue
What can compact bone be found ?
It has less cavities and can be found in the Diaphysis
Where can you find spongy bone ?
- There is interconnecting cavities
- Found in the Calvaria (Skull)
Where can primary bone tissue be found ? Discuss some off it make up ?
- Immature or woven bone
- Irregular array of collagen
- It decreases minerals and increases osteocytes
What is secondary bones ? Where is it found ?
- Variety found in adults
- Collagen fibers arranged in lamellae
- Parallel arrangement : cancellous or spongy bone
What are osteoblasts ? Where are they located ?
- They make bone , organic part of bone
- On the surface of bone tissue
- Osteoid or prebone
What are osteoblasts called when they become trapped in bone ?
What are osteoclasts ? Where can it be found ?
- Large cells that reabsorption of bone
- Howship's Lacunae
- Derived from blood derived -monocytes
Do osteoclasts have an acidophilic or basophilic cytoplasm ? Does it increase lysosomes ?
- Yes , it increases
What is the histochemical reaction for osteoclasts and osteoblasts ? ( Acid phosphatases or Alkaline phosphatases)
- Osteoclasts = Acid phosphatases
- Osteoblasts = Alkaline phosphatases
Why do osteoclast have a well developed golgi apparatus ?
This is because of secretion of : acid collagenase, protelytic enzymes.
What intramembranous ossification ?
It is where flat bones (Skull/Calvaria) are developed from mesenchymal tissue
Explain the process of intramembranous ossification ?
Mesenchymal cells > blastema >osteoprogenitor cells >osteoblasts , primary bone tissue > fusion of ossification centers
What is endochondral ossification ? Explain the process ?
It is the production of Cartilage
Hypotrophy and destruction of chondrocytes , then osteoprogenitor cell penetrate capillaries left by degenerating chondrocytes
Where does longitudinal growth of long bones take place ?
What is growth in the long bone diameter called ?
Explain the process of repairing a bone fracture ?
- Blood Clot
- Macrophage take tissue
- Periosteum and endosteum activate
- Endochondral and intramembranous ossification
- Bone callus is made
- Callus is replaced by lamellar bone