chem chapter 2

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melissag94
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259997
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chem chapter 2
Updated:
2014-02-03 14:03:28
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chem107
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chapter 2 powepoint
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  1. opposite charges ____. like charges ____
    • attract
    • repel
  2. __ are extremely small particles that are unseen by the naked eye
    atoms
  3. this instrument allows you to move individual atoms across the surface
    scanning tunneling microscoope
  4. center of the atom?
    nucleus
  5. fluffy stuff on the outside of the nucleus
    electronic cloud
  6. nucleus has the ?
    protons and neutrons
  7. protons ____ change, electrons and neutrons ___ change
    • never
    • can
  8. when # of protons and neutrons are the same
    isotope
  9. what unit is used instead of grams?
    amu (atomic mass unit)
  10. where is all the mass of the atom located?
    in the middle
  11. what define the element
    the number of protons
  12. who discovered the periodic table
    Dmitri mendeleev
  13. rows=
    periods
  14. columns=
    groups
  15. A groups are known as the?
    main group or representative elements
  16. 1st group?
    alkali metals
  17. 2nd groups?
    alkaline earth metal
  18. B groups are known as the?
    transition elements
  19. ___ have properties of some metals and nonmetals
    metalloids
  20. a substance or mixture that has a characteristic luster and is generally a good conductor of heat or electricity
    metal
  21. an element that does not exhibit the characteristics of the metal
    nonmetal
  22. description of metals?
    • solid and room temp
    • shiny
    • conduct heat
    • conduct electricity
    • malleable
    • ductile
  23. when metals lose electrons they form
    cations in reactions
  24. description of nonmetals
    • solid, liquid, gas
    • poor conductors of heat and electricity
    • solids are brittle
  25. when nonmetals gain electrons, they
    become anions
  26. metalloids are known as?
    semiconductors
  27. example of metals?
    • strontium
    • copper
  28. example of nonmetals?
    • sulfur
    • bromine
    • chlorine
  29. example of metalloids?
    silicon
  30. number of protons in the nucleus
    atomic number
  31. total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
    mass number
  32. same number of protons, but number of neutrons change
    isotopes
  33. for isotopes, average atomic mass is calculated by?
    using weighted average
  34. average atomic mass?
    (mass of isotope)x(fractional abundance 1) +(mass of isotope 2)x(fractional abundance 2)....
  35. mass number?
    protons + neutrons
  36. color Na burns
    yellow
  37. color K burns?
    blue
  38. color Li burns?
    red
  39. color Ba burns?
    green
  40. S =
    1 orbital, 2 electrons
  41. P=
    3 orbitals, 6 electrons
  42. d=
    5 orbitals, 10 electrons
  43. f=
    7 orbitals, 14 electrons
  44. s is what shape?
    spherical
  45. p is what shape?
    dumbbell shape
  46. d is what shape?
    cloverleaf
  47. 3 principles for electron configuration?
    • pauli exclusion
    • aufbau
    • hund's rule
  48. paul exclusion says?
    an orbital can hold only 2 electrons
  49. aufbau says?
    electrons begin filling in the lowest energy level
  50. hund's rule?
    electrons separate before they pair
  51. the electrons in the outermost principle quantum level of an atom?
    valence electron
  52. charged particles are called?
    ions
  53. when atoms gain electrons, they become negatively charged ions called
    anions
  54. when atoms lose electrons they become positively charged ions called
    cations
  55. nonmetals form
    anions
  56. metals form
    cations
  57. atoms lose or gain electrons to look the same as a noble gase
    isoelectronic ions
  58. defined as half the distance between the nuclei in a molecule consisting of 2 identical atoms
    atomic radii
  59. atomic radii gets bigger as?
    you move to the left and down on the periodic table
  60. elements in a group form ions of the
    same charge
  61. when an atoms loses and electron, it has a ____ charge and becomes ____
    • positive
    • smaller
  62. when an atom gains an electrons, it has a ____ charge and becomes ____
    • negative
    • larger
  63. the quantity of energy required to remove an electron from the gaseous atom or ion
    ionization energy

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