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Francisco Pancho Villa
led a populist movement in the north of Mexico aimed at promoting economic development less dependent on other countries; and a new form of populist politics that would be based on village self-rule
second populist leader emerged in the south, put forward a radical demand for the redistribution of land and formed a peasant army. In 1917, the Zapatistas (as this movement was called) forced a new constitution that called for extensive land appropriation and redistribution to village communities. He was assassinated in 1919
Mohandas Gandhi (the Mahatma)
1915 (the great-souled), led a several-decades-long non-violent but active resistance movement against the British
passive, non-violent resistance Gandhi argued that violence can only bring counter-violence, and the two together can only bring a truce. Non-violence, on the other hand, strengthens the psychological and moral position of the weaker party according to Gandhi, and brings out the truth
- instrumental in organizing for the revolution, both at home and abroad; the first president of the Republic only very briefly. To become a watchdog against the dominance of militarism, China�s first political party was founded. It was called the Nationalist Party (Guomindang (GMD for short; in another form of romanization, also written as Kuomintang or KMT). Sun became head of this party.
- He gave way to a compromise candidate who was a powerful military leader, Yuan Shi-kai
May 4, 1919
May 4th Incident; the same intellectuals organized a massive demonstration in Beijing against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles (the major treaty concluding WWI)
Jiang Jieshi (also Chiang Kai-shek)
took over leadership of the GMD after Sun died in 1925; in 1927 declared himself president of the Republic of China, and ordered a round-up of CCP members
founded the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and vowed to work toward a socialist revolution that simultaneously would oppose the evils of China�s old society and of foreign imperialism; a determined Marxist revolutionary, who like Lenin, followed the concrete circumstances which he faced; adapted Marxism to fit the Chinese situation, developing a political program that would attract the vast Chinese peasantry to his side; land reform
- Report on an Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan 1927
- in which Mao argued that the Chinese peasantry would become the major force of a Chinese revolution for socialism
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