Spacecraft Systems Exam 1

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coffeya
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260017
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Spacecraft Systems Exam 1
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2014-02-03 19:23:51
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Exam 1
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  1. The five development and operational phases of a spacecraft project are:
    • 1:Conceptual Study
    • 2. Preliminary
    • 3.Project Definition
    • 4.Spacecraft design & development
    • 5. Operations phase
  2. The space project mission statement answers the question _____
    Why
  3. The mission objectives answer the question _____
    What
  4. The project design answers the question ____
    How
  5. NASA's exploration projects are the first assigned to and organized by a _________________
    NASA Scientific Working Group
  6. The three primary NASA mission control centers are ____,_____, and _____
    JSC, JPL, and GSFC
  7. NASA's two primary communications stations are the ________ network and the ______ satellite system
    • Deep Space 
    • Date Relay
  8. The _____ is one of the greatest constraints to a project or mission
    Budget
  9. The five uses for spacecraft propulsion include:
    • 1. Launch
    • 2. Booster
    • 3. Attitude
    • 4. Orbit Maintenance
    • 5. Boost Separation
  10. The two types of liquid chemical rocket motors are:
    • Monopropellant
    • Bipropellant
  11. A combined liquid and solid propellant rocket motor is called a _____
    Hybrid
  12. The most common oxidizer used for liquid bipropellant rockets is _____
    Liquid 02 (LOX)
  13. The most common liquid monopropellant used for rocket propulsion is _____
    Hydrazine
  14. The Space Shuttle's solid rocket boosters use _________ for fuel
    powdered aluminum
  15. A hybrid rocket motor uses ____ fuel and ____ oxidizer
    solid and liquid
  16. The liquid monopropellant ______ is hypergolic (self-igniting)
    hydrazine
  17. Generally the simplest and least expensive propulsion system is the ___ gas system.
    cold
  18. The ion engine has very high ___ but very low ____.
    • Isp 
    • Thrust
  19. Heating compressed (cold) gas increases the propulsion system's ______.
    efficiency
  20. Nuclear propulsion has a number of disadvantages including its hazardous _____________
    radiation byproducts
  21. The three types of nuclear propulsion systems include nuclear ___, nuclear ___, and _______ impulse
    • thermal
    • ion
    • thermonuclear
  22. Solar photon propulsion is possible to approximately the orbit of _________
    Mercury and Mars
  23. The four basic components of the spacecraft communications systems are:
    • 1. Receiver
    • 2.Transmitter
    • 3.Antenna
    • 4.Command System
  24. An uplink is used to establish a communications link from __________ to _________
    transmitter on ground to receiver on spacecraft
  25. An downlink is used to establish a communications link from __________ to _________
    transmitter on spacecraft to receiver on ground station
  26. The speed of data transfer in a communications system is determined by the _______
    bandwidth
  27. The number of separate communications frequencies available is often referred to as number of ______
    channels
  28. The middle or center of a communications band/channel is called the ____ frequency
    center
  29. A/an _____ is used to couple an electromagnetic signal to space
    antenna
  30. The most useful band for spacecraft communications is the microwave band between approximately __ and __ GHz
    1 and 10
  31. The communications ____ is the detector and decoding subsystem that reproduces the original data sent from the transmitter.
    receiver
  32. The three primary components of a spacecraft command and data handling (C&DH) system are:
    • 1.CPU
    • 2.Command Processor
    • 3.Memory
  33. The C&DH _______ unit is used for data interpretation, validation, and relay.
    command processor
  34. The ___ unit handles internal data manipulation within the individual computers
    CPU
  35. Capability for ______ must be built into system for possible changes in the spacecraft mission.
    reconfiguration
  36. Many of the spacecraft C&DH components must be ___________ for shielding against expected radiation levels.
    hardened/shielded
  37. Like most terrestrial computers, the spacecraft C&DH computer memory includes circuit (read-only,ROM) ____, and ____
    RAM and bulk
  38. Several C&DH components must be ________ to test and recover from errors or partial failures.
    redundant
  39. Like other onboard systems, the C&DH system must have an uninterruptible __________
    electrical power
  40. The two basic types of spacecraft electoral power are _____ and _____.
    primary and secondary
  41. Solar photovoltaic electrical power converts photons in the _____ and ___ bands into electron current
    visible and UV
  42. The useful range of solar photovoltaic power is approximately from the Sun to the orbit of ____
    Mars
  43. The only practical spacecraft secondary electrical power source is ______
    batteries
  44. The two types of electrical batteries are __________ (non-rechargable) and _______ (rechargeable)
    • primary 
    • secondary
  45. Photovoltaic electrical power systems used on spacecraft employ _______ batteries for secondary power.
    rechargeable
  46. Fuel cells used on spacecraft use _________ and _______
    • liquid hydrogen 
    • liquid oxygen
  47. When the spacecraft fuel cell reactants combine, they generate electrical power and _____
    water
  48. Spacecraft fuel cells are used only on _____ missions
    manned
  49. The two types of nuclear electrical power systems are nuclear _____ and nuclear ____
    • thermal
    • reactor
  50. The nuclear _____ system generates the highest power levels of any spacecraft electrical power system
    reactor
  51. The radioisotope thermoelectric generator is a nuclear ____ system
    thermal
  52. All nuclear power systems provide electrical energy by converting ___ into electrical power.
    heat
  53. A spacecraft primary structure is often called a ___ structure
    bus
  54. The primary and supporting structures must be capable of withstanding launch _____ and _____
    vibrations and accelerations
  55. The primary and supporting structures must be capable of operating in the hostile space _____
    environment
  56. The primary and supporting structures must be capable of withstanding high ____ levels
    radiation
  57. The primary and supporting structures must be capable of withstanding _______ temperatures
    extreme
  58. The primary and supporting structures must be capable of withstanding ______ pressure conditions
    vacuum
  59. The primary and supporting structures must be capable of withstanding collisions from ____ and debris in space.
    dust
  60. The most common material used for spacecraft primary and secondary structures is ______ alloy
    aluminum
  61. _____ is a lightweight, strong, high temperature spacecraft structural metal
    titanium
  62. ______ is an example of a lightweight, strong, but expensive spacecraft structural metal
    Beryllium
  63. Spacecraft structural material strength must be ____
    high
  64. Spacecraft structural material density must be ____
    low
  65. Spacecraft structural material corrosion resistance must be ____
    high
  66. Spacecraft structural material electrical conductivity must be ____
    high
  67. Spacecraft structural material ductility must be ____
    high
  68. Thermal control of spacecraft is necessary because of the extreme _____ in space
    temperatures
  69. The two primary types of spacecraft thermal control components are ____ and _____ systems
    passive and active
  70. Active spacecraft thermal control components require ___ for their operation
    energy
  71. Heat pipes are an example of _____ thermal control components
    passive
  72. Insulation is an example of _____ thermal control components
    passive
  73. A sun shield is an example of _____ thermal control components
    passive
  74. Electric heaters are an example of _____ thermal control components
    active
  75. Cryogenic systems are an example of _____ thermal control components
    active
  76. Heat from the Sun at Earth due to solar radiation is ____ W/m^2
    1360
  77. The Earth's reflected energy is approximately __% of direct solar heating
    30
  78. Heat is commonly removed from a spacecraft by one or more ______
    heat outputs
  79. A dark-colored surface ____ and ____ heat more efficiently than a light -colored surface
    absorbs and radiates
  80. A ______ metal surface emits and absorbs very little heat energy
    polished
  81. The greatest temperature range experienced by planets in the solar system is found at/near _____.
    Mercury
  82. The smallest temperature range experienced by planets in the solar system is found at/near ___
    Pluto
  83. Spacecraft trajectory control during the thrust phase is managed by the GN&C _____ functions
    guidance
  84. Determination of spacecraft position and velocity relative to a specified reference frame is executed by the GN&C ______ functions
    navigation
  85. Spacecraft G&NC subsystems used for determining a spacecraft flight path can be augmented with ____-based measurements.
    ground
  86. Accelerometers and gyroscopic rate sectors are two examples of spacecraft attitude and motion ____
    sensor
  87. A GPS system can be used as a spacecraft _______ reference
    absolute
  88. The gravity gradient force can be used for ____ spacecraft attitude and/or trajectory control
    passive
  89. A planetary magnetic field can be used for ____ spacecraft attitude and/or trajectory control
    passive
  90. Spin stabilization can be used for ____ spacecraft attitude control
    active
  91. Spacecraft 3-axis control systems include the following four:
    • 1.Thrusters
    • 2.Reaction control wheels
    • 3.Momentum wheels
    • 4.Control moment gyros
  92. Spacecraft communications networks can also be used for ground tracking spacecraft, including the:
    Deep ____ Network 
    Space ______ and _____ Network
    • Space
    • Tracking and Data
  93. The two forms of orbital energy are ___ energy and ____ energy
    kinetic and potential
  94. Total orbital energy is the sum of ____ energy and _____ energy
    kinetic and potential
  95. Total orbital energy is positive for ____ orbits
    kinetic
  96. Total orbital energy is negative for ______ orbits
    potential
  97. Total orbital energy is zero for ____ orbits
    parabolic
  98. Orbital eccentricity (e) ranges from ___ to less than ____
    0 to less than 1
  99. Escape velocity is ____ times circular velocity at the same radius
    2
  100. Kepler's first law states that _____ orbit the ___ in ___ orbits
    • planets
    • sun 
    • elliptical
  101. Kepler's second law states that _____ are swept out in ________________
    • planets
    • equal areas in equal time
  102. Kepler's third law states the ______ of orbit squared is equal to the ______-_____ axis cubed.
    • period
    • semi-major
  103. The Astronomical Unit (AU) is defined as the mean distance between the _____ and the _____
    Earth and the Sun
  104. ____ has the smallest orbit period around the Sun
    Mercury
  105. _____ has the largest orbit around the Sun
    Pluto
  106. The Earth's orbit around the Sun defines the plane of the _____
    ecliptic
  107. The closest approach in general orbit is called the _______
    periapsis
  108. The largest distance in general orbit is called the _______
    apogee
  109. The ____ are the two intersecting points of an orbit and a reference plane.
    nodes
  110. The three basic types of transfer orbits are _____, the ____ and the ____ transfer orbit
    Hohmann, Spiral, and direct
  111. The most efficient transfer orbit is the _____ transfer orbit
    Hohmann
  112. A transfer orbit that travels less than 180 degrees is called a Type ___ orbit
    1
  113. A transfer orbit that travels greater than 360 degrees and less than 540 degrees is called a Type __ orbit
    3
  114. The Earth's sphere of influence extends about ______m outward from the Earth
    9.27x10^8
  115. Both geosynchronous and geostationary orbits have an orbit period of ___ hours
    24
  116. Magnetic fields in space range from very ___ to very ____
    • strong 
    • weak
  117. The gas pressure in space is almost a perfect ____
    vacuum
  118. The peak in the Sun's electromagnetic spectrum of energy is the _____ band
    visible
  119. The highest energy spectrum band in the electromagnetic spectrum of energy is the ___ band
    gamma
  120. Photon energy from the sun decreased as _____ of the distance with r the distance to the sun.
    square
  121. The solar activity period is an average of ___ years
    11
  122. The source of energy for the Sun is the fusion of _____ into ____
    hydrogen into helium
  123. The fusion process in the Sun's core is called the ____ cycle
    proton
  124. Photon energy released in the Sun's fusion process is in the ____ band
    gamma
  125. Solar wind is composed of mostly ____ and ____ particles
    proton and electron
  126. The typical solar wind velocity is approximately ___ km/s
    400
  127. Very-high-energy particles coming from the Sun, supernova, and the galactic core are called the ______ particles.
    proton
  128. _____ weather represents the conditions in space due to the activity of the Sun
    Space
  129. The solar exploration spacecraft _____ was placed in a polar orbit around the Sun
    Ulysses
  130. The number of dark spots on the sun is closely correlated to the ____ of the Sun
    activity
  131. The Earth's magnetic field is generated by the motion of the liquid-___ core
    iron
  132. The Earth's magnetic field structure is extended on the side _______ of the sun
    opposite
  133. Charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic field make up the ____ radiation belt.
    Van Allen
  134. The highest particle radiation levels in the Earth's radiation belt are near the _______ regions
    polar
  135. The large concentration of magnetic materials induced unusually high particle radiation levels near the South Atlantic region is called the __________ anomaly
    South Atlantic
  136. The Earth's atmosphere is composed of __ main layers with boundary regions separating the layers
    5
  137. The background temperature of space is ___ Kelvin
    2.73
  138. Condensation of hydrogen occurred approximately ______ years after the Big Bang
    385,000
  139. Three degree Kelvin is equivalent to approximately __ gigahertz in the microwave band
    90

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