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  1. Adult Canine dental formula
    2(I3/3, C1/1, P4/4, M2/3) = 10/11 = 20/22 = 42
  2. Deciduous Canine dental formula
    2(Di3/3, Dc1/1, Dp3/3) = 7/7 = 14/14 = 28
  3. Adult Feline dental formula
    2(I3/3, C1/1, P 3/2, M1/1) = 8/7 = 16/14= 30
  4. Deciduous Feline dental formula
    2(Di3/3, Dc1/1, Dp3/2) = 7/6 = 14/12 = 26
  5. The 4 basic types of teeth:
    • Incisor (I)
    • Canine (C)
    • Premolar (P)
    • Molar (M)
  6. These teeth function by nibbling small pieces, tearing bits of tissue from bone and grooming
  7. These teeth grasp and tear with force
  8. These teeth provide shearing and tearing forces
  9. These teeth provide small occlusional surfaces ideal for grinding
  10. These two teeth are referred to as the cheek teeth
    Upper premolar 4 and lower molar 1
  11. Another name for the cheek teeth
    carnassial teeth
  12. Canine time frame for deciduous eruption
    2-12 weeks of age
  13. Feline time frame for deciduous eruption
    2-6 weeks of age
  14. Canine time frame for permanent eruption
    3-7 months of age
  15. Feline time frame for permanent eruption
    3-6 months
  16. Canine deciduous incisor eruption
    3-4 weeks of age
  17. Canine deciduous canine tooth eruption
    3 weeks of age
  18. Canine deciduous premolar eruption
    4-12 weeks of age
  19. Feline deciduous incisor eruption
    2-3 weeks of age
  20. Feline deciduous canine eruption
    3-4 weeks of age
  21. Feline deciduous premolar eruption
    3-6 weeks of age
  22. Canine permanent incisor eruption
    3-5 months of age
  23. Canine permanent canine tooth eruption
    4-6 months of age
  24. Canine permanent premolar eruption
    4-6 months of age
  25. Canine permanent molar eruption
    5-7 months of age
  26. Feline permanent incisor eruption
    3-4 months of age
  27. Feline permanent canine eruption
    4-5 months of age
  28. Feline permanent premolar eruption
    4-6 months of age
  29. Feline permanent molar eruption
    4-5 months of age
  30. This refers to the shallow moat located at the base of a tooth and is the site of actual epithelial attachment of the gums
    gingival sulcus
  31. This fluid resides in the gingival sulcus and contains immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies that help prevent mouth ulcers
    Crevicular fluid
  32. This refers to a bony substance that covers the tooth roots and is the sight of attachment for the periodontal ligaments
  33. Cementum can self regenerate to some degree because of these cells
  34. These hold the tooth in place but allow slight movement and prevent complete removal if struck
    Periodontal ligaments
  35. This bone forms the gomphosis or socket where the tooth sits in
    Alveolar bone
  36. These bones house the incisors
    Incisive or premaxillary bones (2)
  37. These bones house the upper canines, premolars and molars.
    Maxilla (2)
  38. These bones form most of the hard palate
    Palatine bones (2)
  39. This (these) bones house all the lower teeth
    • Mandible
    • Cattle/Cats have 2
  40. The blood supply to the oral cavity comes from:
    External Carotid arteries
  41. Which cranial nerve supplies the oral cavity?
    Trigeminal - mixed
  42. The                    gland duct opens up lateral to the upper P4.
    parotid salivary
  43. The                      gland duct opens up lateral to the upper 2nd molar.
    zygomatic salivary
  44. This is the pH of carnivore and omnivore saliva which acts as a buffer against dental caries
  45. What is the disadvantage of the oral pH of 7.5
    tends to promote deposition of plaque
  46. Which two areas accumulate the most calculus?
    • Buccal surfaces of upper canines and cheek teeth
    • Buccal surfaces of the lower cheek teeth
  47. This means towards the tip of the crown
  48. This means toward the tip of the root
  49. This means toward the rostral end of the arch (toward the midline)
  50. This means in the caudal direction of the arch lateral to the incisor teeth
  51. This means towards the cheek or lip
  52. The means towards the tongue (lower teeth)
  53. This means towards the hard palate (upper teeth)
  54. Another name for a tooth cavity
  55. This refers to inflammation of the soft tissue around the tooth and will cause the bone and cementum to be reabsorbed.
    Periodontal Disease
  56. This is a tooth within a tooth
  57. This is a stomatitis that extends from the soft palate to the epiglottis
  58. Another name for the soft palate:
  59. Disease of the mouth often seen with FIV/FeLV cats that requires tooth extraction and antibiotics.
    Lymphocytic Plasmacytic Gingivostomatitis (LPGS)
  60. Dog/cat normal scissor occlusion:
    • 1. upper incisors overlap lower slightly and lower canines are in front of upper
    • 2. lower canines occlude in interdental space between upper 3rd incisor and canine
    • 3. incisors and canines do not touch
  61. Any abnormal occlusion
  62. A malocclusion where the 4 quadrants of the mouth grow independently of each other
    wry mouth
  63. A malocclusion where the upper incisors are just caudal to the lower incisors and considered the most common
    Anterior crossbite or reverse scissor
  64. This a malocclusion where the lower jaw is normal length but the upper jaw is too short
    Mandibular Prognathism
  65. Another name for Mandibular Prognathism
    Upper Jaw Brachygnathism
  66. This malocclusion is where the maxilla is of normal length and the mandible is shorter than normal
    Mandibular Brachygnathism
  67. Another name for Mandibular Brachygnathism
    Overshot Jaw or overbite
  68. This is when the mandible is wider than the maxilla
    Posterior crossbite
  69. Which breeds commonly have a posterior crossbite
    collies, boxers and other doligocephalic breeds
  70. An adult animal that is does not have full dentition
  71. A complete absence of teeth
  72. An adult animal that has more than normal teeth
  73. What is the percentage of dogs in the US with polydontia
  74. A condition where deciduous teeth erupt in an abnormal pattern and prevent the forward growth of the jaw
    Dental interlock
  75. A common problem with dentition of lap dogs
    retained deciduous teeth
  76. Total absence of a tooth noted on an X-ray
  77. An abnormally shaped root as a result of developmental trauma
  78. A tooth usually covered in bone that has not and probably will not erupt
  79. Permanent teeth are generally                     to deciduous teeth with the exception of the upper                teeth.
    • - lingual
    • - canine
  80. This type of tooth is unable to erupt due to the abnormal growth of another tooth
    impacted tooth
  81. This is an infection of the bone usually secondary to a foreign body
  82. This is the most common benign soft tissue tumor of the oral cavity in canines that is usually highly vascular
    Fibromatous epulis
  83. This is the most common malignant tumor seen in canine oral cavities that metastasize quickly to regional lymph nodes, lungs and liver
    Malignant melanoma
  84. This is the second most common malignant tumor seen in canine oral cavities that metastasize slowly and are friable
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  85. This refers to a thickening and proliferation of the gingiva and thought to be the second most common oral problem next to retained deciduous teeth
    Gingival Hyperplasia
  86. A general term for inflammation in the mouth
  87. Another name for bad breath that is often confused with stomatitis
  88. Some causes of stomatitis:
    • foreign body
    • chemical thermal damage
    • immune related - eg pemphigus vulgaris
    • rodent ulcers
  89. This is caused by an interruption of the ameloblasts during  the 2nd to 5th month of age characterized by irregular pitting or thinning of the teeth
    Enamel Hypoplasia  "Distemper Teeth"
  90. This is the splitting of the crown of a tooth during development
  91. This can occur if a certain drug is given to the dam during gestation or to a puppy before the where a yellow tinge is noted on the deciduous teeth of the puppies from the dam and on the permanents of the puppy
    Tetracycline staining
  92. This refers to a tooth that has broken to where  the pulp cavity is exposed
    Slab fracture
  93. What percentage of slab fractures never show signs of pain or infection?
  94. Of the 15% of slab fractures that do show pain and/or infection, which tooth is usually affected?
    Upper premolars
  95. Another word for a lost tooth
  96. Animals that live where these two things are usually have worn incisors
    Sand and fleas
  97. After a canine tooth extraction, this refers to the hole that is left that leads from the oral cavity to the nasal passage
    Oronasal fistula
  98. This is part of the Eosinophilic granuloma complex characterized by red/brown ulcers on the lips of cats
    Eosinophilic Ulcers "Rodent or kissing ulcers"
  99. This is the most common oral cavity tumor in cats
    Squamous cell carcinoma
  100. The second most common oral cavity tumor in cats
  101. At what age is it a good time to perform the 1st dental examination to note deciduous eruptions?
    3 weeks
  102. At what age is it a good time to perform the second oral examination?
    6-8 weeks during first vaccinations
  103. During the 1st 24 to 48 hours of life what conditions should be check for on the newborn?
    • 1. cleft palate
    • 2. open fontenel
    • 3. hairlip
    • 4. umbilical hernias
  104. What fatal condition is an open fontenel indicative?
  105. As the puppies are checked during the first 24-48 hours, the bitch should be examined for
    • 1. milk production and color
    • 2. fecal for ascarids and ancylostoma
    • 3. dewormed if positive
    • 4. puppies need to be dewormed after pre-patent period (11 days for ancylostoma, 14 days for ascarids)
  106. Dental Prophylaxis Routine
    • 1. Chart teeth
    • 2. Remove plaque, tartar, and calculus from supragingival surfaces with a ultrasonic scaler
    • 3. Perform subgingival curettage (make them bleed)
    • 4. Polish teeth
    • 5. Irrigate - flush debris away
    • 6. Apply phosphate fluoride gel and rinse in 4 minutes
  107. Two ultra speed dental films:
    DF50 and DF58
  108. Advantages of a dental xray unit
    • 1. maneuverability
    • 2. small focal spots
    • 3. very little ray scatter
    • 4. very good detail
  109. What is the focal spot range on a dental xray machine
    0.3 to 1.5 mm
  110. This technique works well with the mandibular teeth caudal to the symphysis
    Parallel technique
  111. For the remainder of the mouth, this technique is used
    Bisecting Angle Technique
  112. What 4 tissues are considered the peridontium?
    • 1. gingiva
    • 2. peridontal ligament
    • 3. cementum
    • 4. alveolar bone
  113. What two conditions make up Periodontal Disease?
    • Peridontitis
    • Gingivitis
  114. This is the single most common disease seen in practices today
    Peridontial Disease
  115. What is the minimum time frame it takes for plaque to minerlize into calculus?
    24-48 hours
  116. What is the etiology of gingivitis?
    gram positive anerobic cocci
  117. What antibiotics are commonly used to treat gingivitis?
    • Clindamycin hydrochloride (Antirobe)
    • Doxycycline (Doxirobe)
    • Enrofloxacin (Baytril)
    • Orbafloxacin (Orbax)
  118. ANUG
    Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis
  119. At what age does peridontitis generally start?
    4-6 years
  120. How does Peridontitis develop?
    • 1. Gingivitis goes untreated
    • 2. organisms penetrate the gingival sulcus
    • 3. Endotoxins cause migration of epithelial attachment toward the root
    • 4. Peridontal ligaments are eaten away and bone loss occurs
    • 5. Tooth resorption
  121. This stage of peridontitis has pockets from 3-5 mm with minimal bone loss and stable teeth
    Early peridontitis - stage 1
  122. This stage of peridontitis has pockets from 6-9mm with gingival hyperplasia and 30-50% bone loss with a few loose teeth
    Moderate peridontitis - stage 2
  123. This stage of peridontitis has pockets greater than 9mm and greater than 50% bone loss with multiple loose teeth
    Advance peridontitis - stage 3
  124. How is a pocket measured
    From the cemento-enamel junction to the bottom of the gingival sulcus with a probe
  125. CEJ
    Cemento-enamel Junction
  126. Upon evaluation and radiographs of a fractured tooth, how many patients require treatment?
    1 in 10
  127. What abnormalties should the RVT be looking for upon oral examination?
    • Halitosis
    • Gingivitis or periodontitis
    • Plaque
    • Calculus
    • Fractured/worn teeth
    • Missing/rotated teeth
    • Retained deciduous/polydontia
    • Lumps or bumps
  128. Periodontal Prophylaxis
    • 1. Examination while awake
    • 2. Examination while under general anesthesia
    • 3. Charting
    • 4. Dental Radiology
    • 5. Calculus removal from gumline
    • 6. Calculus curettage under the gumline
    • 7. Polishing
    • 8. Irrigation
    • 9. Application of fluoride
    • 10. Lesion Therapy (DVM may need to do flap)
    • 11. Home care instructions
    • 12. Follow up appt to monitor disease
  129. For a stage 1 periodontitis, when should the follow up appointment be made after a cleaning?
    6 months
  130. For a stage 2 periodontitis, when should the follow up appointment be made after a cleaning?
    3 months
  131. For a stage 3 and 4 periodontitis, how often should appointments be made after a cleaning and/or treatment?
  132. What must be present on the teeth in order for calculus to form?
    Plaque >> Calculus >> Irritated gums
  133. Warning signs of teeth/mouth problems that the owner should watch out for:
    • Halitosis
    • Brown crusts of tartar along gumline
    • Pain/bleeding while eating (dropped food)
    • Loose teeth upon observation
  134. What are the two nick names for ANUG?
    • "Trench mouth"
    • "Vincent's angina"
  135. What is cause for "Rubber Jaw"?
    Secondary Hyperparathyroidism, it will pull calcium from the mandible first before the long bones
  136. This refers to the distance from the gingival margin to the epithelial attachment
    Pocket depth
  137. This refers to the distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the epithelial attachment
    Attachment level
  138. This refers to the point at which the root under the gums splits to become two roots
  139. At what percentage of support structure reabsorption should the tooth be extracted?
    more than 70%
  140. Three most common anaerobic bacteria that cause periodontitis:
    • 1. Porphyromonas salivosa
    • 2. Porphyromonas denticans
    • 3. Porphyromonas gulae
  141. What is the general term given to the bacteria that cause periodontitis?

    Black-Pigmented Anaerobic BacteriaImage Upload
  142. PDS
    Periodontal Disease
  143. These two organs are primarily involved with PDS
    • heart
    • kidney
  144. What other organs are involved with PDS
    • "Split"
    • Spleen
    • Lungs
    • Liver
    • Tracheobroncial and submandibular L.N.
    • Tonsils
  145. How much plaque can a 4x4 gauze run along the cheek teeth remove during home care?
  146. AVDT
    Academy of Veterinary Dental Technicians
  147. When was AVDT approved?
    2002 by the National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America (NAVTA)
  148. VTS
    Veterinary Technician Specialist
  149. This is the area of veterinary dentistry that deals with the study and treatment of diseases of the peridontium
  150. This is the area of veterinary dentistry that deals with the etiologies, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of conditions that affect structures within the tooth and below the gumline
  151. This is the area of veterinary dentistry that deals with irregularities of the teeth and malocclusions
  152. What is the standard way to test for oxygenation?
    color under the tongue
  153. An exposed furcation is indicative of what condition?
    gingival recession
  154. In geriatric lap dogs, what other condition usually accompanies periodontal disease?
    septicemia that manifests as mitral valve insufficiency
  155. GFR
    Glomerular Filtration Rate
  156. This is the company that first made an ultrasonic scaler and is often the nickname for any brand machine
  157. Which cell forms the enamel
  158. What product stimulates the production of IgA and is often given to cats for mouth ulcers
  159. What is the lupus-like condition associated with the mucous membranes?
    Pemphigus vulgaris
  160. This refers to tissue that falls apart easily
  161. What strength of epinephrine is used to stop bleeding by shrinking the superficial capillaries?
  162. This is a disease primarily in horses where a foreign body becomes lodged in the roof of the mouth leading to osteomyelitis
  163. What is the primary problem that arises from a malocclusion?
    self-cleaning is difficult
  164. What is another name for buccal?
  165. Upper M1 and M2 have how many roots?
  166. Lower molars have how many roots?
  167. Which lower molar occasionally has 1 root?
    lower M3
  168. Upper P1 has how many roots
  169. Upper P2 and P3 have how many roots?
  170. Upper P4 has how many roots
  171. Lower premolars will have how many roots?
    1 or 2 but never 3
Card Set:
2014-04-26 15:12:00
VTHT Anesthesia Surgery

dental stuff
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