These teeth function by nibbling small pieces, tearing bits of tissue from bone and grooming
These teeth grasp and tear with force
These teeth provide shearing and tearing forces
These teeth provide small occlusional surfaces ideal for grinding
These two teeth are referred to as the cheek teeth
Upper premolar 4 and lower molar 1
Another name for the cheek teeth
Canine time frame for deciduous eruption
2-12 weeks of age
Feline time frame for deciduous eruption
2-6 weeks of age
Canine time frame for permanent eruption
3-7 months of age
Feline time frame for permanent eruption
Canine deciduous incisor eruption
3-4 weeks of age
Canine deciduous canine tooth eruption
3 weeks of age
Canine deciduous premolar eruption
4-12 weeks of age
Feline deciduous incisor eruption
2-3 weeks of age
Feline deciduous canine eruption
3-4 weeks of age
Feline deciduous premolar eruption
3-6 weeks of age
Canine permanent incisor eruption
3-5 months of age
Canine permanent canine tooth eruption
4-6 months of age
Canine permanent premolar eruption
4-6 months of age
Canine permanent molar eruption
5-7 months of age
Feline permanent incisor eruption
3-4 months of age
Feline permanent canine eruption
4-5 months of age
Feline permanent premolar eruption
4-6 months of age
Feline permanent molar eruption
4-5 months of age
This refers to the shallow moat located at the base of a tooth and is the site of actual epithelial attachment of the gums
This fluid resides in the gingival sulcus and contains immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies that help prevent mouth ulcers
This refers to a bony substance that covers the tooth roots and is the sight of attachment for the periodontal ligaments
Cementum can self regenerate to some degree because of these cells
These hold the tooth in place but allow slight movement and prevent complete removal if struck
This bone forms the gomphosis or socket where the tooth sits in
These bones house the incisors
Incisive or premaxillary bones (2)
These bones house the upper canines, premolars and molars.
These bones form most of the hard palate
Palatine bones (2)
This (these) bones house all the lower teeth
Cattle/Cats have 2
The blood supply to the oral cavity comes from:
External Carotid arteries
Which cranial nerve supplies the oral cavity?
Trigeminal - mixed
The gland duct opens up lateral to the upper P4.
The gland duct opens up lateral to the upper 2nd molar.
This is the pH of carnivore and omnivore saliva which acts as a buffer against dental caries
What is the disadvantage of the oral pH of 7.5
tends to promote deposition of plaque
Which two areas accumulate the most calculus?
Buccal surfaces of upper canines and cheek teeth
Buccal surfaces of the lower cheek teeth
This means towards the tip of the crown
This means toward the tip of the root
This means toward the rostral end of the arch (toward the midline)
This means in the caudal direction of the arch lateral to the incisor teeth
This means towards the cheek or lip
The means towards the tongue (lower teeth)
This means towards the hard palate (upper teeth)
Another name for a tooth cavity
This refers to inflammation of the soft tissue around the tooth and will cause the bone and cementum to be reabsorbed.
This is a tooth within a tooth
This is a stomatitis that extends from the soft palate to the epiglottis
Another name for the soft palate:
Disease of the mouth often seen with FIV/FeLV cats that requires tooth extraction and antibiotics.
Lymphocytic Plasmacytic Gingivostomatitis (LPGS)
Dog/cat normal scissor occlusion:
1. upper incisors overlap lower slightly and lower canines are in front of upper
2. lower canines occlude in interdental space between upper 3rd incisor and canine
3. incisors and canines do not touch
Any abnormal occlusion
A malocclusion where the 4 quadrants of the mouth grow independently of each other
A malocclusion where the upper incisors are just caudal to the lower incisors and considered the most common
Anterior crossbite or reverse scissor
This a malocclusion where the lower jaw is normal length but the upper jaw is too short
Another name for Mandibular Prognathism
Upper Jaw Brachygnathism
This malocclusion is where the maxilla is of normal length and the mandible is shorter than normal
Another name for Mandibular Brachygnathism
Overshot Jaw or overbite
This is when the mandible is wider than the maxilla
Which breeds commonly have a posterior crossbite
collies, boxers and other doligocephalic breeds
An adult animal that is does not have full dentition
A complete absence of teeth
An adult animal that has more than normal teeth
What is the percentage of dogs in the US with polydontia
A condition where deciduous teeth erupt in an abnormal pattern and prevent the forward growth of the jaw
A common problem with dentition of lap dogs
retained deciduous teeth
Total absence of a tooth noted on an X-ray
An abnormally shaped root as a result of developmental trauma
A tooth usually covered in bone that has not and probably will not erupt
Permanent teeth are generally to deciduous teeth with the exception of the upper teeth.
This type of tooth is unable to erupt due to the abnormal growth of another tooth
This is an infection of the bone usually secondary to a foreign body
This is the most common benign soft tissue tumor of the oral cavity in canines that is usually highly vascular
This is the most common malignant tumor seen in canine oral cavities that metastasize quickly to regional lymph nodes, lungs and liver
This is the second most common malignant tumor seen in canine oral cavities that metastasize slowly and are friable
Squamous cell carcinoma
This refers to a thickening and proliferation of the gingiva and thought to be the second most common oral problem next to retained deciduous teeth
A general term for inflammation in the mouth
Another name for bad breath that is often confused with stomatitis
Some causes of stomatitis:
chemical thermal damage
immune related - eg pemphigus vulgaris
This is caused by an interruption of the ameloblasts during the 2nd to 5th month of age characterized by irregular pitting or thinning of the teeth
Enamel Hypoplasia "Distemper Teeth"
This is the splitting of the crown of a tooth during development
This can occur if a certain drug is given to the dam during gestation or to a puppy before the where a yellow tinge is noted on the deciduous teeth of the puppies from the dam and on the permanents of the puppy
This refers to a tooth that has broken to where the pulp cavity is exposed
What percentage of slab fractures never show signs of pain or infection?
Of the 15% of slab fractures that do show pain and/or infection, which tooth is usually affected?
Another word for a lost tooth
Animals that live where these two things are usually have worn incisors
Sand and fleas
After a canine tooth extraction, this refers to the hole that is left that leads from the oral cavity to the nasal passage
This is part of the Eosinophilic granuloma complex characterized by red/brown ulcers on the lips of cats
Eosinophilic Ulcers "Rodent or kissing ulcers"
This is the most common oral cavity tumor in cats
Squamous cell carcinoma
The second most common oral cavity tumor in cats
At what age is it a good time to perform the 1st dental examination to note deciduous eruptions?
At what age is it a good time to perform the second oral examination?
6-8 weeks during first vaccinations
During the 1st 24 to 48 hours of life what conditions should be check for on the newborn?
1. cleft palate
2. open fontenel
4. umbilical hernias
What fatal condition is an open fontenel indicative?
As the puppies are checked during the first 24-48 hours, the bitch should be examined for
1. milk production and color
2. fecal for ascarids and ancylostoma
3. dewormed if positive
4. puppies need to be dewormed after pre-patent period (11 days for ancylostoma, 14 days for ascarids)
Dental Prophylaxis Routine
1. Chart teeth
2. Remove plaque, tartar, and calculus from supragingival surfaces with a ultrasonic scaler
3. Perform subgingival curettage (make them bleed)
4. Polish teeth
5. Irrigate - flush debris away
6. Apply phosphate fluoride gel and rinse in 4 minutes
Two ultra speed dental films:
DF50 and DF58
Advantages of a dental xray unit
2. small focal spots
3. very little ray scatter
4. very good detail
What is the focal spot range on a dental xray machine
0.3 to 1.5 mm
This technique works well with the mandibular teeth caudal to the symphysis
For the remainder of the mouth, this technique is used
Bisecting Angle Technique
What 4 tissues are considered the peridontium?
2. peridontal ligament
4. alveolar bone
What two conditions make up Periodontal Disease?
This is the single most common disease seen in practices today
What is the minimum time frame it takes for plaque to minerlize into calculus?
What is the etiology of gingivitis?
gram positive anerobic cocci
What antibiotics are commonly used to treat gingivitis?
Clindamycin hydrochloride (Antirobe)
Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis
At what age does peridontitis generally start?
How does Peridontitis develop?
1. Gingivitis goes untreated
2. organisms penetrate the gingival sulcus
3. Endotoxins cause migration of epithelial attachment toward the root
4. Peridontal ligaments are eaten away and bone loss occurs
5. Tooth resorption
This stage of peridontitis has pockets from 3-5 mm with minimal bone loss and stable teeth
Early peridontitis - stage 1
This stage of peridontitis has pockets from 6-9mm with gingival hyperplasia and 30-50% bone loss with a few loose teeth
Moderate peridontitis - stage 2
This stage of peridontitis has pockets greater than 9mm and greater than 50% bone loss with multiple loose teeth
Advance peridontitis - stage 3
How is a pocket measured
From the cemento-enamel junction to the bottom of the gingival sulcus with a probe
Upon evaluation and radiographs of a fractured tooth, how many patients require treatment?
1 in 10
What abnormalties should the RVT be looking for upon oral examination?
Gingivitis or periodontitis
Lumps or bumps
1. Examination while awake
2. Examination while under general anesthesia
4. Dental Radiology
5. Calculus removal from gumline
6. Calculus curettage under the gumline
9. Application of fluoride
10. Lesion Therapy (DVM may need to do flap)
11. Home care instructions
12. Follow up appt to monitor disease
For a stage 1 periodontitis, when should the follow up appointment be made after a cleaning?
For a stage 2 periodontitis, when should the follow up appointment be made after a cleaning?
For a stage 3 and 4 periodontitis, how often should appointments be made after a cleaning and/or treatment?
What must be present on the teeth in order for calculus to form?
Plaque >> Calculus >> Irritated gums
Warning signs of teeth/mouth problems that the owner should watch out for:
Brown crusts of tartar along gumline
Pain/bleeding while eating (dropped food)
Loose teeth upon observation
What are the two nick names for ANUG?
What is cause for "Rubber Jaw"?
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism, it will pull calcium from the mandible first before the long bones
This refers to the distance from the gingival margin to the epithelial attachment
This refers to the distance from the cemento-enamel junction to the epithelial attachment
This refers to the point at which the root under the gums splits to become two roots
At what percentage of support structure reabsorption should the tooth be extracted?
more than 70%
Three most common anaerobic bacteria that cause periodontitis:
1. Porphyromonas salivosa
2. Porphyromonas denticans
3. Porphyromonas gulae
What is the general term given to the bacteria that cause periodontitis?
Black-Pigmented Anaerobic Bacteria
These two organs are primarily involved with PDS
What other organs are involved with PDS
Tracheobroncial and submandibular L.N.
How much plaque can a 4x4 gauze run along the cheek teeth remove during home care?
Academy of Veterinary Dental Technicians
When was AVDT approved?
2002 by the National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America (NAVTA)
Veterinary Technician Specialist
This is the area of veterinary dentistry that deals with the study and treatment of diseases of the peridontium
This is the area of veterinary dentistry that deals with the etiologies, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of conditions that affect structures within the tooth and below the gumline
This is the area of veterinary dentistry that deals with irregularities of the teeth and malocclusions
What is the standard way to test for oxygenation?
color under the tongue
An exposed furcation is indicative of what condition?
In geriatric lap dogs, what other condition usually accompanies periodontal disease?
septicemia that manifests as mitral valve insufficiency
Glomerular Filtration Rate
This is the company that first made an ultrasonic scaler and is often the nickname for any brand machine
Which cell forms the enamel
What product stimulates the production of IgA and is often given to cats for mouth ulcers
What is the lupus-like condition associated with the mucous membranes?
This refers to tissue that falls apart easily
What strength of epinephrine is used to stop bleeding by shrinking the superficial capillaries?
This is a disease primarily in horses where a foreign body becomes lodged in the roof of the mouth leading to osteomyelitis
What is the primary problem that arises from a malocclusion?